Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava
Persistent left superior vena cava is the most common congenital thoracic venous anomaly with a prevalence of ~0.5% in the population and up to 10% of those with established congenital heart disease. Generally a benign anomaly that is identified incidentally on imaging or during attempts at left-sided venous access, it may be associated with clinical arrhythmia, and may complicate cardiac surgery and electrophysiology device placement. The various anatomic subtypes and commonly associated congenital defects should be understood.
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