Advertisement

Interacting with a Semantic Affective ECA

  • Joaquín PérezEmail author
  • Yanet Sánchez
  • Francisco J. Serón
  • Eva Cerezo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10498)

Abstract

This paper presents an affective enhanced semantic ECA named E-VOX. The core of E-VOX is a cognitive-affective architecture based on Soar and extended with an affective model inspired by ALMA, that takes into account emotions, mood, and personality. E-VOX works as an assistant to provide useful information from Wikipedia, supporting real-feel human-computer interaction. User interaction with the ECA is explained and first tests with users are shown. These tests have revealed that the ECA is perceived as useful, easy to use and entertaining. Thanks to the cognitive-affective architecture, the agent’s behavior is modulated its personality, influencing agent-user interaction and the perception of the agent by the user. The agent’s emotional behavior has been perceived by users as realistic though not always sufficiently expressive.

Keywords

Embodied conversational agent Cognitive architecture Emotional models 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allison, M., Kendrick, L.M.: Towards an expressive embodied conversational agent utilizing multi-ethnicity to augment solution focused therapy. In: FLAIRS Conference (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Becker-Asano, C., Meneses, E., Riesterer, N., Hué, J., Dornhege, C., Nebel, B.: The hybrid agent marco: a multimodal autonomous robotic chess opponent. In: Proc. of the 2nd Intl. Conf. on Human-Agent Interaction (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bevacqua, E., Prepin, K., Niewiadomski, R., de Sevin, E., Pelachaud, C.: Greta: Towards an interactive conversational virtual companion. In: Artificial Companions in Society: Perspectives on the Present and Future, pp. 143–156 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bickmore, T.W., Utami, D., Matsuyama, R., Paasche-Orlow, M.K.: Improving access to online health information with conversational agents: A randomized controlled experiment. Journal of medical Internet Research 18 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bickmore, T.W., Vardoulakis, L.M.P., Schulman, D.: Tinker: a relational agent museum guide. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 27(2), 254–276 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    6. Bizer, C., Lehmann, J., Kobilarov, G., Auer, S., Becker, C., Cyganiak, R., and Hellmann, S. (2009). DBpedia - A crystallization point for the Web of Data. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 7(3):154–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boukricha, H., Wachsmuth, I.: Empathy-Based Emotional Alignment for a Virtual Human: A Three-Step Approach. KI - Künstliche Intelligenz 25, 195–204 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cavazza, M., De La Camara, R.S., Turunen, M.: How was your day?: a companion ECA. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems: volume 1-Volume 1, pp. 1629–1630. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dias, J., Mascarenhas, S., Paiva, A.: FAtiMA modular: towards an agent architecture with a generic appraisal framework. In: Bosse, T., Broekens, J., Dias, J., van der Zwaan, J. (eds.) Emotion Modeling. LNCS, vol. 8750, pp. 44–56. Springer, Cham (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-12973-0_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    El-Nasr, M.S., Yen, J., Ioerger, T.R.: Flame: Fuzzy logic adaptive model of emotions. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 3(3), 219–257 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Flavián-Blanco, C., Gurrea-Sarasa, R., Orús-Sanclemente, C.: Analyzing the emotional outcomes of the online search behavior with search engines. Comput. Hum. Behav. 27(1), 540–551 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gebhard, P.: A layered model of affect. In: 4th International Joint Conference of Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS 2005), pp. 29–36. ACM Press (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Helgadóttir, H.E., Jónsdóttir, S., Sigurdsson, A.M., Schiffel, S., Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Virtual general game playing agent. In: Traum, D., Swartout, W., Khooshabeh, P., Kopp, S., Scherer, S., Leuski, A. (eds.) IVA 2016. LNCS, vol. 10011, pp. 464–469. Springer, Cham (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47665-0_56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hill, R.W., Gratch, J., Marsella, S.C., Swartout, W., Traum, D.: Virtual humans in the mission rehearsal exercise system. In: Kunstliche Intelligenzi (KI) (special issue on Embodied Conversational Agents), June 2003Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang, H.-H., Ida, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Kawagoe, K.: Development of a virtual classroom for high school teacher training. In: Traum, D., Swartout, W., Khooshabeh, P., Kopp, S., Scherer, S., Leuski, A. (eds.) IVA 2016. LNCS, vol. 10011, pp. 489–493. Springer, Cham (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47665-0_61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hupont, I., Baldassarri, S., Cerezo, E.: Facial emotional classification: from a discrete perspective to a continuous emotional space. Pattern Analysis and Applications 16(1), 41–54 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Johnson, E., Hervás, R., López, G., de la Franca, C., Mondéjar, T., Ochoa, S.F., Favela, J.: Assessing empathy and managing emotions through interactions with an affective avatar. Health Informatics Journal (2016). p. 1460458216661864Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klaassen, R., Hendrix, J., Reidsma, D., op den Akker, H.J.A.: Elckerlyc goes mobile enabling technology for ecas in mobile applications. UBICOMM (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kopp, S., Gesellensetter, L., Krämer, N.C., Wachsmuth, I.: A conversational agent as museum guide – design and evaluation of a real-world application. In: Panayiotopoulos, T., Gratch, J., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P., Rist, T. (eds.) IVA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3661, pp. 329–343. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi: 10.1007/11550617_28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laird, J.E.: The Soar Cognitive Architecture. The MIT Press (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marinier, R., Laird, J.: Computational Modeling of Mood and Feeling from Emotion. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science 29(29) (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marsella, S.C., Gratch, J.: EMA: A process model of appraisal dynamics. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research 10(1), 70–90 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCrae, R.R., John, O.P.: An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality 60(2), 175–215 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mehrabian, A.: Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Current Psychology 14(4), 261–292 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nooraei, B., Rich, C., Sidner, C.L.: A real-time architecture for embodied conversational agents: Beyond turn-taking. ACHI 14, 381–388 (2014)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ortony, A., Collins, A., Clore, G.L.: The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [England]; New York, pbk. ed. edn. (1988)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pelachaud, C. (2015). Greta: an interactive expressive embodied conversational agent. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pages 5–55. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent SystemsGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pérez, J., Cerezo, E., Serón, F.J., Rodríguez, L.F.: A cognitive-affective architecture for ECAs. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 18, 33–40 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reithinger, N., Gebhard, P., Löckelt, M., Ndiaye, A., Pfleger, N., Klesen, M.: Virtualhuman: dialogic and affective interaction with virtual characters. In: ICMI 2006: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, New York, NY, USA, pp. 51–58 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Serón, F.J., Bobed, C.: Vox system: a semantic embodied conversational agent exploiting linked data. Multimedia Tools and Applications 75(1), 381–404 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joaquín Pérez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yanet Sánchez
    • 1
  • Francisco J. Serón
    • 1
  • Eva Cerezo
    • 1
  1. 1.Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering (DIIS)University of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain

Personalised recommendations