Fixed-pie Lie in Action
Negotiation is a crucial skill for socially intelligent agents. Sometimes negotiators lie to gain advantage. In particular, they can claim that they want the same thing as their opponents (i.e., use a “fixed-pie lie”) to gain an advantage while appearing fair. The current work is the first attempt to examine effectiveness of this strategy when used by agents against humans in realistic negotiation settings. Using the IAGO platform, we show that the exploitative agent indeed wins more points while appearing fair and honest to its opponent. In a second study, we investigated how far the exploitative agents could push for more gain and examined their effect on people’s behavior. This study shows that even though exploitative agents gained high value in short-term, their long-term success remains questioned as they left their opponents unhappy and unsatisfied.
KeywordsHuman-agent negotiation Behavioral game theory Deception
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Baarslag, T., Kaisers, M., Gerding, E.H., Jonker, C.M., Gratch, J.: When will negotiation agents be able to represent us the challenges and opportunities for autonomous negotiators. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2017)Google Scholar
- 2.Lin, R., Oshrat, Y., Kraus, S.: Investigating the benefits of automated negotiations in enhancing people’s negotiation skills. In: Proceedings of The 8th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, vol. 1, pp. 345–352 (2009)Google Scholar
- 4.Broekens, J., Harbers, M., Brinkman, W.-P., Jonker, C.M., Van den Bosch, K., Meyer, J.-J.: Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill. In: Nakano, Y., Neff, M., Paiva, A., Walker, M. (eds.) IVA 2012. LNCS, vol. 7502, pp. 218–230. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-33197-8_23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Osborne, M.J., Rubinstein, A.: A course in game theory. MIT Press (1994)Google Scholar
- 9.Gratch, J., Nazari, Z., Johnson, E.: The misrepresentation game: how to win at negotiation while seeming like a nice guy. In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multiagent Systems, pp. 728–737 (2016)Google Scholar
- 10.Mell, J., Gratch, J.: IAGO: interactive arbitration guide online. In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multiagent Systems, pp. 1510–1512 (2016)Google Scholar
- 12.Baarslag, T., Hendrikx, M., Hindriks, K., Jonker, C.: Predicting the performance of opponent models in automated negotiation. In: Proc. - 2013 IEEE/WIC/ACM Int. Conf. Intell. Agent Technol. IAT 2013, vol. 2, pp. 59–66 (2013)Google Scholar
- 13.Gratch, J., Nguyen, T.: Misrepresentation Negotiation Games. Univ. South. Calif. Inst. Creat. Technol. Play, Vista (2016)Google Scholar
- 14.Reilly, P.R.: Was Machiavelli right? Lying in negotiation and the art of defensive self-help (2008)Google Scholar