The Fine Line Between Medicine and Torture. Historical Iconography of Instruments and Practices
Numerous instruments of torture, even on a superficial observation, resemble surgical tools and therapeutic aids. A more careful analysis of their respective uses and operations reveals, in effect, that when they do not simply involve the distorted and aberrant use of surgical effects, they represent an exaggerated application of forces and movements that, to attain a medical-therapeutic effect, should be limited and controlled.
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