Control and Optimization Problems in Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 MRI

  • John MaidensEmail author
  • Murat Arcak
Part of the Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences - Proceedings book series (LNCOINSPRO)


Hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging technology for probing metabolic activity in living subjects, which promises to provide clinicians new insights into diseases such as cancer and heart failure. These experiments involve an injection of a hyperpolarized substrate, often pyruvate labeled with carbon-13, which is imaged over time as it spreads throughout the subject’s body and is transformed into various metabolic products. Designing these dynamic experiments and processing the resulting data requires the integration of noisy information across temporal, spatial, and chemical dimensions, and thus provides a wealth of interesting problems from an optimization and control perspective. In this work, we provide an introduction to the field of hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRI targeted toward researchers in control and optimization theory. We then describe three challenge problems that arise in metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized substrates: the design of optimal substrate injection profiles, the design of optimal flip angle sequences, and the constrained estimation of metabolism maps from experimental data. We describe the current state of research on each of these problems, and comment on aspects that remain open. We hope that these challenge problems will serve to direct future research in control.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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