Acute Urinary Tract Infection in Infants and Children: Evidence-Based Emergency Imaging

  • Roshanak BenabbasEmail author
  • Paul Cronin
  • Carol E. Barnewolt
  • Leonard P. Connolly
  • Carlos R. EstradaJr.
  • Kimberly E. Applegate
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in children. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of UTI are recommended. In the absence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), grade I to IV antibiotic prophylaxis is not warranted following UTI. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is not required after the first UTI unless ultrasound (US) reveals abnormalities that are suggestive of high-grade VUR.


Urinary tract infection Vesicoureteral reflux Computed tomography Ultrasonography Voiding cystourethrography Emergency imaging Evidence-based imaging 


  1. 1.
    Kunin CM, Deutscher R, Paquin A Jr. Medicine (Baltimore). 1964;43:91–130.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Honkinen O, Jahnukainen T, Mertsola J, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19(7):630–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marcus N, Ashkenazi S, Yaari A, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(7):581–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, et al. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13(5):269–84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics. 2011 Aug 28.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rushton HG, Majd M. J Urol. 1992;148(5 Pt 2):1726–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jakobsson B, Soderlundh S, Berg U. Arch Dis Child. 1992;67(11):1338–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benador D, Benador N, Slosman D, et al. Lancet. 1997;349(9044):17–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khoury A, Bagli DJ. Reflux and megaureter. In: Wein A, editor. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. p. 3423–81.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chand DH, Rhoades T, Poe SA, et al. J Urol. 2003;170(4 Pt 2):1548–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee YJ, Lee JH, Park YS. J Urol. 2012;187(3):1032–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Orellana P, Baquedano P, Rangarajan V, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19(10):1122–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pecile P, Miorin E, Romanello C, et al. Pediatrics. 2009;124(1):23–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jahnukainen T, Chen M, Celsi G. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20(8):1043–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wullt B, Bergsten G, Fischer H, et al. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003;17(2):279–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Risdon RA, Yeung CK, Ransley PG. Clin Nephrol. 1993;40(6):308–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marild S, Jodal U. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(5):549–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoberman A, Wald ER. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16(1):11–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shaikh N, Morone NE, Bost JE, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(4):302–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoberman A, Charron M, Hickey RW, et al. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(3):195–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen L, Baker MD. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006;22(7):485–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smellie JM, Hodson CJ, Edwards D, et al. Br Med J. 1964;2(5419):1222–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wiswell TE, Roscelli JD. Pediatrics. 1986;78(1):96–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Herzog LW, Am J. Dis Child. 1989;143(3):348–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, Ray GT. Pediatrics. 2000;105(4 Pt 1):789–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zorc JJ, Levine DA, Platt SL, et al. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):644–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arant BS Jr. Am J Kidney Dis. 1991;17(5):491–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eccles MR, Jacobs GH. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000;29(3):337–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mak RH, Kuo HJ. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003;15(2):181–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lama G, Russo M, De Rosa E, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;15(3–4):205–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chandra M, Maddix H, McVicar M. J Urol. 1996;155(2):673–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sillen U. Pediatr Nephrol. 1999;13(4):355–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Silva JM, Oliveira EA, Diniz JS, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21(4):510–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kaefer M, Curran M, Treves ST, et al. Pediatrics. 2000;105(4 Pt 1):800–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Connolly LP, Treves ST, Connolly SA, et al. J Urol. 1997;157(6):2287–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Noe HN. J Urol. 1992;148(5 Pt 2):1739–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mingin GC, Hinds A, Nguyen HT, et al. Urology. 2004;63(3):562–5. Discussion 5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Craig JC, Irwig LM, Knight JF, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 1997;33(5):434–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stark H. Pediatr Nephrol. 1997;11(2):174–7. Discussion 80–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cohen AL, Rivara FP, Davis R, et al. Pediatrics. 2005;115(6):1474–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Armstrong EP, Am J. Manag Care. 2001;7(3):269–80.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Conway PH, Edwards S, Stucky ER, et al. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):441–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Altemeier WA 3rd. Pediatr Ann. 1999;28:663–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Skoog SJ, Peters CA, Arant BS Jr, et al. J Urol. 2010;184(3):1145–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Conway PH, Keren R. J Pediatr. 2009;154(6):789–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Routh JC, Nelson CP, Graham DA, et al. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3):e446–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rolleston GL, Shannon FT, Utley WL. Br Med J. 1970;1(5694):460–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pylkkanen J, Vilska J, Koskimies O. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1981;70(6):879–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bourchier D, Abbott GD, Maling TM. Arch Dis Child. 1984;59(7):620–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jakobsson B, Svensson L. Acta Paediatr. 1997;86(8):803–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ditchfield MR, De Campo JF, Cook DJ, et al. Radiology. 1994;190(2):413–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wennerstrom M, Hansson S, Jodal U, et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998;152(9):879–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gelfand MJ, Koch BL, Cordero GG, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(2):121–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smellie JM, Jodal U, Lax H, et al. J Pediatr. 2001;139(5):656–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ilyas M, Mastin ST, Richard GA. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17(1):30–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moorthy I, Easty M, McHugh K, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(7):733–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gonzalez E, Papazyan JP, Girardin E. J Urol. 2005;173(2):571–4. Discussion 4–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Garin EH, Olavarria F, Garcia Nieto V, et al. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):626–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee JH, Son CH, Lee MS, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21(9):1281–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tseng MH, Lin WJ, Lo WT, et al. J Pediatr. 2007 Jan;150(1):96–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Montini G, Toffolo A, Zucchetta P, et al. BJM. 2007 Aug 25;335(7616):386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sheu JN, Chen MC, Chen SM, et al. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(2):133–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zaffanello M, Cataldi L, Brugnara M, et al. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(6):494–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Verrier JK. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(7):663–4.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rosenheim ML. In The Richard Bright Memorial Lecture, delivered on the occasion of the Bright Centenary Celebrations at Guy’s Hospital Medical School, 1958; 403–423.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bailey RR. Clin Nephrol. 1973;1(3):132–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gelfand MJ, Barr LL, Abunku O. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(10):665–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Newman TB, Bernzweig JA, Takayama JI, et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(1):44–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Craig JC, Williams GJ, Jones M, et al. BMJ. 2010;340:c1594.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Soylu A, Demir BK, Turkmen M, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23(12):2227–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Faust WC, Diaz M, Pohl HG. J Urol. 2009;181(1):290–7. Discussion 7–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shaikh N, Craig JC, Rovers MM, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(10):893–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nguyen HT, Bauer SB, Peters CA, et al. J Urol. 2000;164(5):1674–8. Discussion 8–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Williams G, Fletcher JT, Alexander SI, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19(5):847–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schwab CW Jr, Wu HY, Selman H, et al. J Urol. 2002;168(6):2594–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Silva JM, Diniz JS, Lima EM, et al. BJU Int. 2006;97(5):1063–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bell C. Med Chir Trans. 1812;3:171–384.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wheeler D, Vimalachandra D, Hodson EM, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88(8):688–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Olbing H, Claesson I, Ebel KD, et al. J Urol. 1992;148(5 Pt 2):1653–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Piepsz A, Tamminen-Mobius T, Reiners C, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 1998;157(9):753–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Smellie JM, Barratt TM, Chantler C, et al. Lancet. 2001;357(9265):1329–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jodal U, Smellie JM, Lax H, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21(6):785–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;287(6386):171–4.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Birmingham Reflux Study Group. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;295(6592):237–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Le Saux N, Pham B, Moher D. CMAJ. 2000;163(5):523–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Thompson RH, Chen JJ, Pugach J, et al. J Urol. 2001;166(4):1465–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Williams G, Lee A, Craig J. J Pediatr. 2001;138(6):868–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hellerstein S, Nickell E. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17(7):506–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wald ER. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):919–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Georgaki-Angelaki H, Kostaridou S, Daikos GL, et al. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(11-12):842–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Faust WC, Pohl HG. Curr Opin Urol. 2007;17(4):252–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Conway PH, Cnaan A, Zaoutis T, et al. JAMA. 2007;298(2):179–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lee SJ, Shim YH, Cho SJ, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22(9):1315–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Larcombe J. Clin Evid. 2005;(13):444–57.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Al-Sayyad AJ, Pike JG, Leonard MP. J Urol. 2005;174(4 Pt 2):1587–9. Discussion 9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Venhola M, Huttunen NP, Uhari M. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(2):98–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Escribano Subias J, Fraga RG. Arch Esp Urol. 2008;61(2):229–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nagler EV. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49(10):876–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nagler EV, Williams G, Hodson EM, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6:CD001532.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Salo J, Ikaheimo R, Tapiainen T, et al. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):840–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Craig JC, Irwig LM, Knight JF, et al. Pediatrics. 2000;105(6):1236–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
  104. 104.
    Majd M, Nussbaum Blask AR, Markle BM, et al. Radiology. 2001;218(1):101–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    De Sadeleer C, De Boe V, Keuppens F, et al. Eur J Nucl Med. 1994;21(3):223–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zamir G, Sakran W, Horowitz Y, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(5):466–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Alshamsam L, Al Harbi A, Fakeeh K, et al. Ann Saudi Med. 2009;29(1):46–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lee SK, Chang Y, Park NH, et al. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;21(4):406–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hekmatnia A, Merrikhi A, Farghadani M, et al. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18(1):31–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Arthurs OJ, Edwards AD, Joubert I, et al. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82(3):e112–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shanon A, Feldman W, McDonald P, et al. J Pediatr. 1992;120(3):399–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Moorthy I, Wheat D, Gordon I. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19(2):153–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kavanagh EC, Ryan S, Awan A, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(3):275–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Whiting P, Westwood M, Bojke L, et al. Health Technol Assess. 2006;10(36):iii–iv, xi–xiii, 1–154.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Podberesky DJ, Unsell BJ, Gunderman R, et al. Urinary tract infection – child. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology (ACR); 2012. [online publication].Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fernbach SK, Maizels M, Conway JJ. Pediatr Radiol. 1993;23(6):478–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Blane CE, DiPietro MA, Zerin JM, et al. J Urol. 1993;150(2 Pt 2):752–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    DiPietro MA, Blane CE, Zerin JM. Radiology. 1997;205(3):821–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Davey MS, Zerin JM, Reilly C, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 1997;27(12):908–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rickwood AM, Carty HM, McKendrick T, et al. BMJ. 1992;304(6828):663–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tibballs JM, De Bruyn R. Arch Dis Child. 1996;75(5):444–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yerkes EB, Adams MC, Pope JC, et al. J Urol. 1999;162(3 Pt 2):1218–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jaswon MS, Dibble L, Puri S, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999;80(2):F135–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Brophy MM, Austin PF, Yan Y, et al. J Urol. 2002;168(4 Pt 2):1716–9. Discussion 9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kimata T, Kitao T, Yamanouchi S, et al. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;231(4):251–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Massanyi EZ, Preece J, Gupta A, et al. Urology. 2013;82(4):905–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nelson CP, Johnson EK, Logvinenko T, et al. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):e394–403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Grattan-Smith JD. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(Suppl 2):S275–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jones RA, Schmotzer B, Little SB, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(Suppl 1):S18–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kirsch AJ, Grattan-Smith JD, Molitierno JA Jr. Curr Opin Urol. 2006;16(4):283–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lonergan GJ, Pennington DJ, Morrison JC, et al. Radiology. 1998;207(2):377–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Agarwal R, Brunelli SM, Williams K, et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(3):856–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Takazakura R, Johnin K, Furukawa A, et al. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;25(1):170–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Johnin K, Takazakura R, Furukawa A, et al. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;38(4):897–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Arthurs OJ, Edwards AD, Joubert I, et al. Eur Radiol. 2011;21(9):1874–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lavocat MP, Granjon D, Allard D, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 1997;27(2):159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Darge K. Pediatr Radiol. 2008 Jan;38(1):40–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Vates TS, Shull MJ, Underberg-Davis SJ, et al. J Urol. 1999;162(3 Pt 2):1221–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Barnewolt CE, Paltiel HJ, Lebowitz RL, Kirks DR. In Kirks DR (ed.). Practical pediatric imaging – diagnostic radiology of infants and children, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven, 1998; 1010–1019.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hoberman A, Chao HP, Keller DM, et al. J Pediatr. 1993 Jul;123(1):17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Haddon RA, Barnett PL, Grimwood K, et al. Med J Aust. 1999 May 17;170(10):475–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Finnell SM, Carroll AE, Downs SM, et al. Pediatrics. 2011;128(3):e749–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Goldraich NP, Goldraich IH. J Urol. 1992;148(5 Pt 2):1688–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Urinary tract infection in children London: NICE, 2007. Available at
  145. 145.
    Smellie JM, Rigden SP, Prescod NP. Arch Dis Child. 1995;72(3):247–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hohenfellner K, Seemayer S, Stolz G, et al. Klin Padiatr. 2000;212(6):320–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Downs SM. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):535–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hung TW, Tsai JD, Liao PF, et al. Pediatr Neonatol. 2016 Apr;57(2):113–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wan J, Skoog SJ, Hulbert WC, et al. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):e1051–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
  151. 151.
    Christian MT, McColl JH, MacKenzie JR, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2000;82(5):376–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bjorgvinsson E, Majd M, Eggli KD. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991;157(3):539–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Benador D, Benador N, Slosman DO, et al. J Pediatr. 1994;124(1):17–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Preda I, Jodal U, Sixt R, et al. J Pediatr. 2007;151(6):581–4. 4 e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Cascio S, Chertin B, Colhoun E, et al. J Urol. 2002;168(4 Pt 2):1708–10. Discussion 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Stokland E, Hellstrom M, Jacobsson B, et al. J Pediatr. 1996;129(6):815–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Jakobsson B, Berg U, Svensson L. Arch Dis Child. 1994;70(2):111–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rushton HG, Majd M, Jantausch B, et al. J Urol. 1992;147(5):1327–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Friedland GW, Cunningham J. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1972;116(4):792–811.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Husmann D. In: Gonzalez E, Bauer S, editors. Pediatric urology practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 295–311.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lee RS, Cendron M, Kinnamon DD, et al. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):586–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Nguyen HT, Benson CB, Bromley B, et al. J Pediatr Urol. 2014 Dec;10(6):982–98.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nguyen HT, Herndon CD, Cooper C, et al. J Pediatr Urol. 2010 Jun;6(3):212–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ismaili K, Hall M, Piepsz A, et al. J Pediatr. 2006;148(2):222–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Coelho GM, Bouzada MC, Lemos GS, et al. J Urol. 2008;179(1):284–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Walsh TJ, Hsieh S, Grady R, et al. Urology. 2007;69(5):970–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Estrada CR, Peters CA, Retik AB, et al. J Urol. 2009;181(2):801–6. Discussion 6–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wiener JS, O’Hara SM. J Urol. 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 2):1826–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Yeung CK, Godley ML, Dhillon HK, et al. Br J Urol. 1997;80(2):319–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Stock JA, Wilson D, Hanna MK. J Urol. 1998;160(3 Pt 2):1017–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hellerstein S. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2000;12(2):125–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roshanak Benabbas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul Cronin
    • 2
    • 3
  • Carol E. Barnewolt
    • 4
    • 5
  • Leonard P. Connolly
    • 5
    • 6
  • Carlos R. EstradaJr.
    • 5
    • 7
  • Kimberly E. Applegate
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineSUNY Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Division of Cardio-Thoracic RadiologyMichigan MedicineAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Health SystemsAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  5. 5.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  7. 7.Department of UrologyBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  8. 8.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Kentucky Children’s HospitalLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations