Advertisement

Non-Accidental Injury in Infants and Children: Evidence-Based Emergency Imaging

  • Wouter A. KarstEmail author
  • Rick R. van Rijn
Chapter
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)

Abstract

Child abuse is a world-wide problem, with both short and long term consequences, and the radiologist can be one of the first to suggest a diagnosis of child abuse. Timely detection of physical child abuse can be important to prevent further harm to the child in question. In this chapter radiological findings in young children, e.g. subdural hematoma and posterior rib fractures, which are strong indicators for child abuse are discussed and the evidence base is presented.

Keywords

Child abuse Radiology Abusive head trauma Fractures Dating Emergency imaging Evidence-based imaging 

References

  1. 1.
    WHO. Child maltreatment. 2007. http://www.who.int/topics/child_abuse/en/. [updated 2007].
  2. 2.
    United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and other cruel or degrading forms of punishment. Geneva, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2 March 2007 Contract No.: UN document CRC/C/GC/8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stoltenborgh M, van Ijzendoorn MH, Euser EM, et al. Child Maltreat. 2011;16(2):79–101.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Louwers EC, Korfage IJ, Affourtit MJ, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96(5):422–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Osmond MH, Brennan-Barnes M, Shephard AL. J Trauma. 2002;52(1):8–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoytema van Konijnenburg EM, Teeuw AH, Zwaard SA, et al. Emerg Med J. 2014;31(3):196–200.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allareddy V, Asad R, Lee MK, et al. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e100110.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Estroff JM, Foglia RP, Fuchs JR. J Emerg Med. 2015;48(3):274–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carty H, Pierce A. Eur Radiol. 2002;12(12):2919–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn T, Bilo RA, van Duurling LL, et al. Acta Paediatr. 2013;102(11):e497–501.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, et al. Prev Med. 2003;37(3):268–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, et al. Am J Prev Med. 1998;14(4):245–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fang X, Brown DS, Florence CS, et al. Child Abuse Negl. 2012;36(2):156–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cardiff Child Protection. Cardiff child PrOtection Systematic REviews – CORE INFO. 2015. http://www.core-info.cardiff.ac.uk. https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/child-protection-evidence. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  15. 15.
    Keenan HT, Runyan DK, Marshall SW, et al. JAMA. 2003;290(5):621–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Keenan HT, Hooper SR, Wetherington CE, et al. Pediatrics. 2007;119(3):e616–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maguire S, Pickerd N, Farewell D, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94(11):860–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Postema FA, Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn T, Majoie CB, et al. Emerg Radiol. 2014;21(4):349–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn T, Postema FA, Verbaan D, et al. Eur J Radiol. 2014;83(7):1257–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kubat B, Bilo RA, van Rijn RR. Clin Neuropathol. 2014;33(4):299–307.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bartschat S, Richter C, Stiller D, et al. Med Sci Law. 2015;56:147–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weber W. Z Rechtsmed. 1984;92(2):87–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meservy CJ, Towbin R, McLaurin RL, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 1987;149(1):173–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hobbs CJ. Arch Dis Child. 1984;59(3):246–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parisi MT, Wiester RT, Done SL, et al. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015;31(11):779–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laskey AL, Stump TE, Hicks RA, et al. J Pediatr. 2013;162(1):86–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wood JN, Christian CW, Adams CM, et al. Pediatrics. 2009;123(2):e247–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barber I, Kleinman PK. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(Suppl 4):S613–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pandya NK, Baldwin K, Wolfgruber H, et al. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009;29(6):618–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kemp AM, Dunstan F, Harrison S, et al. BMJ. 2008;337:a1518.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maguire SA, Kemp AM, Lumb RC, et al. Pediatrics. 2011;128(3):e550–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Flaherty EG, Perez-Rossello JM, Levine MA, et al. Pediatrics. 2014;133(2):e477–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kleinman PK, Marks SC Jr, Richmond JM, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 1995;165(3):647–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kleinman PK, Perez-Rossello JM, Newton AW, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197(4):1005–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kowal-Vern A, Paxton TP, Ros SP, et al. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1992;31(11):653–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prosser I, Maguire S, Harrison SK, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(4):1282–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prosser I, Lawson Z, Evans A, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(5):1014–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Halliday KE, Broderick NJ, Somers JM, et al. Clin Radiol. 2011;66(11):1049–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sidebotham P, Bailey S, Belderson P, et al. Child Abuse Negl. 2011;35(4):299–306.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Trokel M, Discala C, Terrin NC, et al. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006;22(10):700–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sheybani EF, Gonzalez-Araiza G, Kousari YM, et al. Radiographics. 2014;34(1):139–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hilmes MA, Hernanz-Schulman M, Greeley CS, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41(5):643–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maguire SA, Upadhyaya M, Evans A, et al. Child Abuse Negl. 2013;37(7):430–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barnes PM, Norton CM, Dunstan FD, et al. Lancet. 2005;366(9481):234–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wood J, Rubin DM, Nance ML, et al. J Trauma. 2005;59(5):1203–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ledbetter DJ, Hatch EI Jr, Feldman KW, et al. Arch Surg. 1988;123(9):1101–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jacombs AS, Wines M, Holland A, et al. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39(1):96–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gaines BA, Shultz BS, Morrison K, et al. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39(4):600–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Case ME, Nanduri R. J Forensic Sci. 1983;28(2):496–501.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kemp AM, Rajaram S, Mann M, et al. Clin Radiol. 2009;64(5):473–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    The Society and College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists. The radiologic investigation of suspected physical abuse in children. 2017.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Spitz G, Maller JJ, Ng A, et al. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30(24):2038–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Colbert CA, Holshouser BA, Aaen GS, et al. Radiology. 2010;256(3):898–905.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    American College of Radiology (ACR). ACR practice guideline for skeletal surveys in children. 2006.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Offiah AC, Adamsbaum C, van Rijn RR. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(11):1338.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Anilkumar A, Fender LJ, Broderick NJ, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36(3):216–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bennett BL, Chua MS, Care M, et al. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:354.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kleinman PK, Nimkin K, Spevak MR, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167(4):893–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lindberg DM, Shapiro RA, Laskey AL, et al. Pediatrics. 2012;130(2):193–201.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    van Schuppen J, Olthof DC, Wilde JC, et al. Eur J Radiol. 2014;83(1):206–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fleming S, Bird R, Ratnasingham K, et al. Int J Surg. 2012;10(9):470–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forensic MedicineNetherlands Forensic InstituteThe HagueThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric RadiologyEmma Children’s Hospital/Academic Medical Center AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Forensic MedicineNetherlands Forensic InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations