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Satellite Meteorological Networks

  • Stojče Dimov Ilčev
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter introduces global meteorological satellite networks for weather observation and imaging. As stated in Volume 1 of this book, satellites are objects that orbit larger object, such as planets or moons. The Earth’s Moon is an example of a natural satellite, and Earth itself is natural satellite of Sun. Thus, communication, navigation, weather, and other artificial satellites are the result of human ingenuity. There are two main types of weather satellites, defined by their orbital characteristics: Polar Earth Orbit (PEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Most satellite weather images seen on the local television news or the weather TV channels are produced by GEO satellites. The GEO satellites orbit the Earth above the equator at the same speed as the Earth rotates around its axis, so they are able to transmit a continuous meteorological picture of the region below their footprint. However, the PEO meteorological satellites are orbiting in the significantly lower and shorter, taking about 100 min to travel from pole to pole and produce high-resolution snapshots of the Earth.

Acronyms

AMSU

Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

ATMS

Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder

ATOVS

Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

AVHRR

Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer

AVHRR

Advanced VHRR

AVCS

Advanced Vidicon Camera System

ASCOT

Aerial Survey Control Tool

VNIIEM

All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Electro-mechanics

ALEXI

Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse

APT

Automatic Picture Transmission

CASC

China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation

CMA

China Meteorological Administration

CCR

Cloud Cover Radiometer

CERES

Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System

COMET

Cooperative Program for Meteorological Education and Training

C-rIS

Cross-track Infrared Sounder

DCP

Data Collection Platform

DCS

Data Collection System

DOD

Department of Defense

DODGE

Department of Defense Gravity Experiment

DPS

Digital Photogrammetric Systems

DS

Dwell Sounding

EO

Earth Observation

EMWIN

Emergency Managers Weather Information Network

ESSA

Environmental Satellite Service Administration

ENVISAT

ESA Environment Satellite

EPS

Eumetsat Polar System

ELDO

European Launcher Development Organization

Eumetsat

European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

ESA

European Space Agency

ESRO

European Space Research Organization

FAGS

Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services

FY

FengYun

FCI

Flexible Combined Imager

FTS

Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

GEO

Geostationary Earth Orbit

GERB

Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget

GMS

Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

GOMS

Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite

GOMS-1

Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite-1

GLORIA

Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere

GCOS

Global Climate Observing System

GOS

Global Observing System

GVAR

GOES Variable

GRB

GOES-R Rebroadcast

GHRSST

Group for High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature

GIRD

Group for Investigation of Reactive Movement

HAP

High-Altitude Platforms

HEO

High Elliptical Orbit

HRIT

High Rate Information Transmission

HIRS

High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

HRPT

High-Resolution Picture Transmission

HRV

High-Resolution Visible

HIRS

High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

ITOS

Improved TIROS Operational System

IMD

India Meteorological Department

INSAT

Indian National Satellite

INSAT

Indian National Satellite System

IRS

Indian Remote Sensing

ISRO

Indian Space Research Organization

ISP

Inertially Stabilized Platforms

IR

InfraRed

IRS

Infrared Sounder

VISSR

Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer

IJPS

Initial Joint Polar System

IGBP

International Geosphere and Biosphere Program

ISCCP

International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

ISES

International Space Environment Service

JCAB

Japan Civil Aviation Bureau

JMA

Japan Meteorological Agency

JPSS

Joint Polar Satellite System

KIT

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

LI

Lightning Imager

LRIT

Low-Rate Information Transmission

MetOp

Meteorological Operational

MOS

Meteorological Operational Satellite

MOP

Meteosat Operational Program

MSG

Meteosat Second Generation

MTG

Meteosat Third Generation

MTP

Meteosat Transition Program

MHS

Microwave Humidity Sounder

MSU

Microwave Sounding Unit

MLIT

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport

MSMR

Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer

MVISR

Multichannel Visible Infrared Scanning Radiometer

MSI

Multispectral Imaging

MOS

Multispectral Optoelectronic Scanner

NESDIS

National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPOESS

National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

NPP

National Polar-orbiting Partnership

NSMC

National Satellite Meteorological Center

NWS

National Weather Service

OSCAR

Observing System Capabilities Analysis and Review

OCM

Ocean Color Monitor

OSCAR

Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real Time

OMPS

Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite

PCW

Polar Communications and Weather

PEO

Polar Earth Orbit

POES

Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites

PSLV

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

PMR

Pressure Modulator Radiometer

RMC

Radiation Measurement Complex

R&D

Research and Development

FZJ

Research Center Jülich

RPY

Roll, Pitch and Yaw

RRR

Rolling Review of Requirements

Roshydromet

Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

SSAR

Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar

SCAMS

Scanning Microwave Spectrometer

SR

Scanning Radiometers

SAR

Search and Rescue

SARSAT

Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking

SWFDP

Severe Weather Forecasting Demonstration Project

SST

Skin Sea Surface Temperature

SBUV

Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer

SBUV

Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral Radiometer

SEM

Space Environment Monitor

SEVIRI

Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager

SAGE

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

SPS

Stratospheric Platform Systems

SSU

Stratospheric Sounding Unit

S-VISSR

Stretched Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer

TIR

Thermal Infrared

TOVS

TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

TOMS

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

UVN

Ultraviolet Visible-Near-infrared

UPS

Unique Payload Services

UCAR

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

UAV

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

UTLS

Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

VAS

Vertical Atmospheric Sounder

VTPR

Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer

VHRR

Very-High-Resolution Radiometer

VNIR

Visible and Near-Infrared

VIRRS

Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite

VISSR

Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer

VAS

VISSR Atmospheric Sounder

WEFAX

Weather Facsimile

WIP

WIGOS Implementation Plan

WIGOS

WMO Integrated Global Observing System

WCRP

World Climate Research Program

WMO

World Meteorological Organization

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stojče Dimov Ilčev
    • 1
  1. 1.Durban University of Technology (DUT)DurbanSouth Africa

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