Bulk Insertions into xBR\(^{+}\)-trees

  • George Roumelis
  • Michael Vassilakopoulos
  • Antonio CorralEmail author
  • Yannis Manolopoulos
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10563)


Bulk insertion refers to the process of updating an existing index by inserting a large batch of new data, treating the items of this batch as a whole and not by inserting these items one-by-one. Bulk insertion is related to bulk loading, which refers to the process of creating a non-existing index from scratch, when the dataset to be indexed is available beforehand. The xBR\(^{+}\)-tree is a balanced, disk-resident, Quadtree-based index for point data, which is very efficient for processing spatial queries. In this paper, we present the first algorithm for bulk insertion into xBR\(^{+}\)-trees. This algorithm incorporates extensions of techniques that we have recently developed for bulk loading xBR\(^{+}\)-trees. Moreover, using real and artificial datasets of various cardinalities, we present an experimental comparison of this algorithm vs. inserting items one-by-one for updating xBR\(^{+}\)-trees, regarding performance (I/O and execution time) and the characteristics of the resulting trees. We also present experimental results regarding the query-processing efficiency of xBR\(^{+}\)-trees built by bulk insertions vs. xBR\(^{+}\)-trees built by inserting items one-by-one.


Spatial indexes Bulk-inserting xBR\(^{+}\)-trees Query processing 


  1. 1.
    An, N., Kanth, K.V.R., Ravada, S.: Improving performance with bulk-inserts in Oracle R-trees. In: VLDB Conference, pp. 948–951 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arge, L., Hinrichs, K.H., Vahrenhold, J., Vitter, J.S.: Efficient bulk operations on dynamic R-trees. Algorithmica 33(1), 104–128 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen, L., Choubey, R., Rundensteiner, E.A.: Bulk-insertions info R-trees using the small-tree-large-tree approach. In: ACM-GIS Conference, pp. 161–162 (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, L., Choubey, R., Rundensteiner, E.A.: Merging R-trees: efficient strategies for local bulk insertion. GeoInformatica 6(1), 7–34 (2002)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choubey, R., Chen, L., Rundensteiner, E.A.: GBI: a generalized R-tree bulk-insertion strategy. In: Güting, R.H., Papadias, D., Lochovsky, F. (eds.) SSD 1999. LNCS, vol. 1651, pp. 91–108. Springer, Heidelberg (1999). doi: 10.1007/3-540-48482-5_8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ghanem, T.M., Shah, R., Mokbel, M.F., Aref, W.G., Vitter, J.S.: Bulk operations for space-partitioning trees. In: ICDE Conference, pp. 29–40 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hjaltason, G.R., Samet, H.: Speeding up construction of PMR quadtree-based spatial indexes. VLDB J. 11(2), 109–137 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kamel, I., Khalil, M., Kouramajian, V.: Bulk insertion in dynamic R-trees. In: SDH Conference, pp. 3B.31–3B.42 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee, T., Moon, B., Lee, S.: Bulk insertion for R-trees by seeded clustering. Data Knowl. Eng. 59(1), 86–106 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roumelis, G., Vassilakopoulos, M., Loukopoulos, T., Corral, A., Manolopoulos, Y.: The xBR\(^+\)-tree: an efficient access method for points. In: Chen, Q., Hameurlain, A., Toumani, F., Wagner, R., Decker, H. (eds.) DEXA 2015. LNCS, vol. 9261, pp. 43–58. Springer, Cham (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-22849-5_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roumelis, G., Vassilakopoulos, M., Corral, A., Manolopoulos, Y.: Bulk-loading xBR\(^+\)-tree. In: MEDI Conference, pp. 57–71 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roumelis, G., Vassilakopoulos, M., Corral, A., Manolopoulos, Y.: An efficient algorithm for bulk-loading xBR\(^+\)-trees. Comput. Stand. Interfaces (2017, to appear)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roumelis, G., Vassilakopoulos, M., Corral, A.: The deletion operation in xBR-Trees. In: PCI Conference, pp. 138–143 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roumelis, G., Vassilakopoulos, M., Corral, A.: Performance comparison of xBR-trees and R*-trees for single dataset spatial queries. In: Eder, J., Bielikova, M., Tjoa, A.M. (eds.) ADBIS 2011. LNCS, vol. 6909, pp. 228–242. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-23737-9_17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roussopoulos, N., Kotidis, Y., Roussopoulos, M.: Cubetree: organization of and bulk updates on the data cube. In: SIGMOD Conference, pp. 89–99 (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shekhar, S., Chawla, S.: Spatial Databases: A Tour. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Roumelis
    • 1
  • Michael Vassilakopoulos
    • 2
  • Antonio Corral
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yannis Manolopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece
  3. 3.Department of InformaticsUniversity of AlmeriaAlmeriaSpain

Personalised recommendations