Advertisement

The Place of Slavery in the Aristotelian Framework of Law, Reason and Emotion

  • Peter Langford
  • Ian Bryan
Chapter
Part of the Law and Philosophy Library book series (LAPS, volume 121)

Abstract

This chapter considers the Aristotelian examination of slavery in Book I of the Politics in order to question the relationship between slavery and the wider Aristotelian framework of law, reason and emotion. A detailed analysis of Book 1 reveals that it is orientated by an appropriation and transformation of the Platonic conception of virtue and rulership. The Aristotelian response defines the slave as the particular determination of the connection between nature and necessity which, in turn, shape the notions of law, reason and emotion. The relationship between the slave and notions of law, reason and emotion are conferred after the initial determination of, and justification for, the division between (natural) master and (natural) slave. The division is a form of rulership within the household. The slave’s subjection to the master determines that the relationship to law, reason and emotion is coextensive with household management. It is only the free population and, in particular, free men, who are capable of developing a political regime. The political regime is the sole form through which the relationship between law, reason and emotion is to be established in order to realize the ideal or good life. The further development of the Politics is predicated upon the simultaneous recognition and disappearance of a relationship of subjection.

Keywords

Aristotle Household management Mastery Nature and necessity Slavery 

References

  1. Agamben, Giorgio. 1998. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Translated by Daniel Heller-Roazen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2013. The Highest Poverty. Monastic Rules and Form-of-Life. Translated by Adam Kotsko. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2016. The Use of Bodies. Translated by Kevin Atell. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ambler, Wayne C. 1987. Aristotle on Nature and Politics: The Case of Slavery. Political Theory 15 (3): 390–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annas, Julia. 1995. The Morality of Happiness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 1997. Ethical Arguments from Nature: Aristotle and After. In Beiträge Zur Antiken Philosophie: Festschrift Für Wolfgang Kullmann, ed. Hans-Christian Günther and Antonios Rengakos, 185–198. Stuttgart: Steiner.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2011. Intelligent Virtue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aristotle. 1991. On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse. Translated by George A. Kennedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1998. Politics. Edited and Translated by C. D. C. Reeve. Indianapolis, IN and Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2000. Nicomachean Ethics. Edited and Translated by R. Crisp. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bodéüs, Richard. 1993. The Political Dimensions of Aristotle’s Ethics. Translated by Jan E. Garrett. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bombelli, Giovanni. 2018. Emotion and Rationality in Aristotle’s Model: From Anthropology to Politics. In Aristotle on Emotions in Law and Politics, ed. Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer and Nuno M.M.S. Coelho. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Brunschwig, Jacques. 2005. L’esclavage Chez Aristote. Cahiers Philosophiques Hors Série\September: 9–21.Google Scholar
  14. Cambiano, Giuseppe. 1980. Aristotle and the Anonymous Opponents of Slavery. Slavery & Abolition 8 (1): 22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cherry, Kevin M. 2013. Plato, Aristotle, and the Purpose of Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cooper, John M. 1999. An Aristotelian Theory of Emotions. In Reason and Emotion. Essays on Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Deslauriers, Marguerite. 2006. The Argument of Aristotle’s ‘Politics’ 1. Phoenix 60 (1/2): 48–69.Google Scholar
  18. Dobbs, Darrell. 1994. Natural Right and the Problem of Aristotle’s Defense of Slavery. Journal of Politics 56 (1): 69–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frank, Jill. 2004. Citizens, Slaves, and Foreigners: Aristotle on Human Nature. American Political Science Review 98 (1): 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ———. 2005. A Democracy of Distinction: Aristotle and the Work of Politics. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fuselli, Stefano. 2018. Logoi Enuloi. Aristotle’s Contribution to the Contemporary Debate on Emotions and Decision-Making. In Aristotle on Emotions in Law and Politics, ed. Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer and Nuno M.M.S. Coelho. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Garver, Eugene. 1994. Aristotle’s Natural Slaves: Incomplete Praxeis and Incomplete Human Beings. Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 (2): 173–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. ———. 1995. Aristotle’s Rhetoric: An Art of Character. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2014. Aristotle’s Politics. Living Well and Living Together. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Goldschmidt, Victor. 1984. La Théorie Aristotélicienne D’esclavage et Sa Methode. In Écrits I. Études de Philosophie Ancienne, 63–80. Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  26. Gottlieb, Paula. 2009. The Virtue of Aristotle’s Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hansen, Mogens H. 2009. Polis: An Introduction to the Ancient Greek City-State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Harte, Verity, and Melissa Lane. 2013. Introduction. In Politeia in Greek and Roman Philosophy, ed. Verity Harte and Melissa Lane, 1–11. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heath, Malcolm. 2008. Aristotle on Natural Slavery. Phronesis 53 (3): 243–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henry, Devin, and Karen Margarethe Nielsen. 2015. Introduction. In Bridging the Gap Between Aristotle’s Science and Ethics, ed. Devin Henry and Karen Margarethe Nielsen, 1–25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hursthouse, Rosalind. 2002. On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kamtekar, Rachana. 2014. The Relationship Between Aristotle’s Ethical and Political Discourses (NE X 9). In The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, ed. Ronald Polansky, 370–382. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leunissen, Mariska. 2015. Aristotle on Knowing Natural Science for the Sake of Living Well. In Bridging the Gap Between Aristotle’s Science and Ethics, ed. Devin Henry and Karen Margarethe Nielsen, 214–231. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ———. 2017. Biology and Teleology in Aristotle’s Account of the City. In Teleology in the Ancient World: The Dispensation of Nature, ed. Julius Rocca. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Levin, Michael. 1997. Natural Subordination, Aristotle On. Philosophy 72 (280): 241–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lévy, Edmond. 1989. La Théorie Aristotélicienne D’esclavage et Ses Contradictions. Mélanges de Pierre Lévêque 3: 197–216.Google Scholar
  37. Mayhew, Robert. 1997. Aristotle’s Criticism of Plato’s Republic. Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  38. Morel, Pierre-Marie. 2011. Le Meilleur Et Le Convenable. Loi Et Constitution Dans La Politique D’Aristote. In Politique d’Aristote: Famille, Régimes, Éducation, ed. Emanuel Bermon, Valery Laurand, and Jean Terrel, 89–103. Bordeaux: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  39. Nagle, D. Bernard. 2006. The Household as the Foundation of Aristotle’s Polis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Nichols, Mary P. 1992. Citizens and Statesmen: A Study of Aristotle’s Politics. Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  41. Nielsen, Karen Margarethe. 2015. Aristotle on Principles in Ethics: Political Science as the Science of the Human Good. In Bridging the Gap Between Aristotle’s Science and Ethics, ed. Devin Henry and Karen Margarethe Nielsen, 29–48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pangle, Thomas L. 2013. Aristotle’s Teaching in the Politics. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pellegrin, Pierre. 2013. Natural Slavery. In The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle’s Politics, ed. Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée, 92–116. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Plato. 2000. In The Republic, ed. G.R.F. Ferrari. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Preus, Anthony. 1993. Aristotle on Slavery: Recent Reactions. Philosophical Inquiry 15 (3/4): 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rapp, Christoph. 2009. The Nature and Goals of Rhetoric. In The Blackwell Companion to Aristotle, ed. Georgios Anagnostopoulos, 579–595. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. Rosivach, Vincent J. 1999. Enslaving ‘Barbaroi’ and the Athenian Ideology of Slavery. Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte 48 (2): 129–157.Google Scholar
  48. Russell, Daniel C. 2009. Practical Intelligence and the Virtues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2012. Happiness for Humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schofield, Malcolm. 2005. Ideology and Philosophy in Aristotle’s Theory of Slavery. In Aristotle’s Politics: Critical Essays, ed. Richard Kraut and Steven Skultety, 91–120. Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  51. Schofield, Malcolm, and Richard Kraut. 2006. Aristotle’s Political Ethics. In The Blackwell Guide to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, 305–322. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  52. Schütrumpf, Eckart. 1993. Aristotle’s Theory of Slavery—A Platonic Dilemma. Ancient Philosophy 13 (1): 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sloate, Michael. 1995. From Morality to Virtue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, Nigel D. 1991. Aristotle’s Theory of Natural Slavery. In A Companion to Aristotle’s Politics, ed. David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, 142–155. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Swanton, Christine. 2005. Virtue Ethics a Pluralistic View. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Thornton, Lockwood. 2007. Is Natural Slavery Beneficial? Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2): 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Trott, Ariel M. 2014. Aristotle on the Nature of Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Veloso, Claudio W. 2011. La Relation Entre Les Liens Familiaux Et Les Constitutions Politiques. In Politique d’Aristote: Famille, Régimes, Education, ed. Emanuel Bermon, Valery Laurand, and Jean Terrel, 23–39. Bordeaux: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  59. ———. 2013. Aristote, Ses Commentateurs et Les Déficiences Délibératives de L’Esclave et de La Femme. Les Études Philosophiques 107 (4): 513–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vlassopoulos, Kostas. 2011. Greek Slavery: From Domination to Property and Back Again. Journal of Hellenic Studies 131: 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ward, Julie K. 2005. Aristotle on Physis: Human Nature in the Ethics and Politics. Polis 22 (2): 287–308.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Law and CriminologyEdge Hill UniversityOrmskirkUK
  2. 2.Law SchoolUniversity of LancasterLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations