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Mobilization of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells to Promote Regeneration After Stroke

  • Monika Rabenstein
  • Maria Adele RuegerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Endogenous neural stem cells (eNSC) in the adult brain mainly reside in two stem cell niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Following cerebral insults, they are mobilized from their niches to engage in regeneration and mediate functional recovery. After cerebral ischemia, eNSC generate new neurons in a process called neurogenesis, but also indirectly mediate regeneration via pleiotropic functions including neuroprotection, reduction of neuroinflammation, revascularization, and induction of plasticity. However, the physiological capacity of the brain for self-repair after stroke is insufficient in mammals. Thus, a promising therapeutic approach in stroke constitutes the targeted activation of eNSC by pharmacological substances, e.g. osteopontin or FGL, and by non-pharmacological approaches, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Since treatments based on the transplantation of stem cells harbor several disadvantages including poor long-term cell survival and a lack of integration into the host circuitry, mobilizing the eNSC niche for therapeutic purposes constitutes a most promising approach in stem cell research.

Keywords

Osteopontin FGL Ar-tumerone Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Recovery Neurogenesis Neuroprotection Plasticity Functional recovery 

Abbreviations

BrDU

Bromodeoxyuridine

CNS

central nervous system

DCX

Doublecortin

EAE

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

EGF

Epithelial growth factor

eNSC

Endogenous neural stem cells

FGF 2

Fibroblast growth factor 2

FGL

Neural cell adhesion molecule FG Loop

NCAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

OPN

Osteopontin

PET

Positron-Emission-Tomography

RMS

Rostral migratory stream

SGZ

Subgranular zone of the hippocampus

Shh

Sonic hedgehog

SVZ

Subventricular zone

tDCS

Transcranial direct current stimulation

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Neural Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany

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