Applications of Ocean In-situ Observations and Its Societal Relevance

  • M. Ravichandran
  • M. S. Girishkumar
Part of the Springer Oceanography book series (SPRINGEROCEAN)


The present status of ocean observation networks, especially in-situ, and their potential applications and societal relevance are summarized here. In-situ ocean observations are imperative to understand dynamics and thermodynamics of the ocean and its near-surface atmosphere, and they enhance our knowledge about weather and climate. Moreover, in-situ observations are directly assimilated into ocean and atmosphere models to support operational forecasts of ocean and atmospheric conditions. They complement the extensive data sets gathered by satellites, and they augment and validate the parameter estimates provided by satellites and other remote sensors through precise, direct measurements of ocean and atmospheric conditions. Global, national, and local ocean observational networks are a key foundation of operational oceanography. They underpin services of broad societal importance and economic value. These include the forecast of weather conditions, including seasonal and subseasonal monsoon forecasts; the provision of warnings of extreme weather and ocean events, such as tropical cyclones, storm surges, high waves and tsunamis; and information services in support of other ocean or coastal activities such as ocean transport and search and rescue operations. These services deliver direct and indirect benefits to a wide spectrum of society.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR)GoaIndia
  2. 2.Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)HyderabadIndia

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