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Cancer Biology: Severe Cumulative Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Reactions

All Diseases Pass through Allergies and Differential Bioenergetics-Histamine a Blue Print!
  • Mahin Khatami
Chapter

Abstract

The outcomes of two centuries of repeated failed cancer research and therapy show that cancer has been made as an imaginary problem, a black box, not to be solved by the decision makers in the medical/cancer establishment for huge profit. In this chapter the ‘Other Side of Political Darkness’ in cancer science will be discussed by attempting to systematically analyze and integrate available data and demonstrate that growth of cancer cells is the results of severe, aggressive, and progressive aggregation of immune response alterations (immune tsunami or cancer tsunami) or accumulation of delayed hypersensitivity responses in tissues. Cancer cell growth is proposed to initiate as ‘mild’ (often sub-clinical) altered immune dynamics (immune disorder) and progress innately, genetically or be induced primarily in immune-responsive tissues. Severe altered immune-responses could also damage the immune-privileged tissues by shifting the architectural integrities and barriers of these oxidative-sensitive tissues to behave as immune-responsive and promote growth.

Evidence is provided that cancerous cells behave like pathogens altering host immune dynamics by hijacking and taking advantage of loss of balance in dual (pleiotropy) properties of Yin (tumoricidal) and Yang (tumorigenic) processes of effective immunity at multiple levels (e.g., cytoplasmic, vasculature, extracellular and intracellular membrane trafficking) with differential bioenergetics requirements to create immune suppression and demand tissue adaption that allow cancer cells to grow and thrive resulting in host destruction. Answer to cancer is proposed to be correcting the balance and differential bioenergetics of Yin-Yang of immunity. Future studies are proposed focusing on systematic understanding of age-associated bioenergetics defects in Yin (tumoricidal) and Yang (tumorigenic) responses of effective immunity. Crucial dysfunction of mitochondria, through pyruvate shuttle mechanisms as well as high energy demands of biosynthesis of structural proteins from branched amino acids are among important studies for better understanding the cancer biology. Defects in mitochondria (mitophagy) have far more influence in age-associated disease processes such as site-specific cancers and loss of cellular integrity than originally thought. A proposed working model for future studies demonstrates functionality of mitochondria after birth being intimately involved in maintenance or loss of Yin-Yang energy requirements in health or disease processes. Presence and accumulation of cancerous cells or other immune disruptors (‘biological terrorists’, oxidative stress) alter bioenergetics profiles in tissues, shifting the ratios of Yin vs. Yang of immune surveillance in favor of tissue growth and carcinogenesis. Role of circulating histamine is hypothesized among major factors involved in genesis of defective cancerous cells and differential energy consumption in promotion of wound healing events.

Keywords

Adipocytes Alanine Alkaline Anabolic Anaphylaxis Angiogenesis Asthma ATP/ADP/AMP Autophagy Biomarkers Cancer bioenergetics Cancer disorderly growth Cancer microenvironment Catabolic Catecholamine Cell surface molecules Constituent and adaptive receptors Decoy receptors Differential energy requirements in Yin-Yang Environmental hazards Extrinsic factors Fetus orderly growth Fumarate Glycolysis Golgi apparatus Heterogeneity Histamine Immune chaos Immune tolerance Immune Tsunami Inflammation Innate and adaptive immune cells Intrinsic factors IRAK-M Isoleucine ‘Leaky’ MCs Leucine Low level circulating histamine ‘Mild’ ‘Moderate’ or ‘severe’ immune disorders Mitogen-activated protein kinase mTOR/PI3K/AKT Mitochondria Mitophagy Neoplasm Oxidative stress Pathogen pattern recognition Polyps Prostaglandins Site-specific cancers Somatic mutations Succinate TCA cycle TNFR Transporters Vasoactive Vasculogenesis Warburg Wound healing 

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