Advertisement

Climate Change, Genetic Diversity, and Conservation of Paleoendemic Redwoods

  • M. R. Ahuja
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 17)

Abstract

Global climate has always been changing in the past and will continue to change in the future. However, according to current predictions, the climate has been changing more rapidly and has impacted species distributions, requiring strategies to conserve genetic resources in forest trees. Conservation of genetic resources of four endemic redwoods, Sequoia sempervirens, Sequoiadendron giganteum, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, and Fitzroya cupressoides, from the family Cupressaceae are discussed in this paper. All four genera are monospecific, share a number of common phenotypic traits, including red wood, and are threatened in their natural habitats. Although fossil history of the redwoods can be traced back to more than 100 million years ago in the Cretaceous Period, these redwoods were widespread during the Tertiary period (7–65 million years ago) in the northern and southern hemisphere. Following the geological upheavals and climate changes, the redwoods have become living fossils or paleoendemics, and are now restricted in their native narrow ranges in USA, China, and South America. Therefore, it is necessary to conserve the genetic resources in these paleoendemic redwoods and, at the same time, maintain an appropriate level of genetic diversity in the redwood species and populations for their future survival. In situ and ex situ strategies for the conservation of genetic resources of redwoods are discussed in this paper. Although these redwoods are protected in the national parks, reserves, and in privately owned forests in their habitats, it would be desirable to conserve them in new ex situ reserves, and by other ex situ strategies involving biotechnological approaches to preserve seed, tissues, and DNA in gene banks for future exploitations in the face of climate change.

Keywords

Climate change Redwoods Sequoia Sequoiadendron Metasequoia Fitzroya Paleoendemics Genetic diversity Genetic resources Conservation 

References

  1. Adams RP (1997) Conservation of DNA: DNA banking. In: Callow JA, Ford-Lloyd BV, H. J. Newbury HJ (eds) Biotechnology and plant genetic resources, conservation and Use. CABI Publishing, London, pp 163–174Google Scholar
  2. Ahuja MR (1986) Storage of forest tree germplasm in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). Silvae Genet 35:249–251Google Scholar
  3. Ahuja MR (1987) In vitro propagation of poplars and aspens. In: Bongs JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Cell and tissue culture in forestry, vol 3. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 207–223Google Scholar
  4. Ahuja MR (1989) Storage of forest tree germplasm at sub-zero temperatures. In: Dhawan V (ed) Application of biotechnology in forestry and horticulture. Plenum Press, New York, pp 215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahuja MR (1993) Micropropagation of woody plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahuja MR (1994) Reflections on germplasm preservation of trees. In: Pardos JA, Ahuja MR, Rosello RE (eds) Biotechnology of trees. Investgacion Agraria Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, Madrid, pp 227–233Google Scholar
  7. Ahuja MR (1996) Micropropagation and field testing of frost-tolerant Sequoia sempervirens genotypes. In: LeBlanc J (ed) Proceeding of the conference on coast redwood forest ecology and management. Humboldt State University, Arcata, pp 153–155Google Scholar
  8. Ahuja MR (1999) Biotechnology in forest tree gene banks. In: Edwards DGW, Naithani SC (eds) Seed and nursery technology of forest trees. New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, New Delhi, pp 23–36Google Scholar
  9. Ahuja MR (2005) Polyploidy in gymnosperms: revisited. Silvae Genet 54:59–69Google Scholar
  10. Ahuja MR (2009) Genetic constitution and diversity in four narrow endemic redwoods from the family Cupressaceae. Euphytica 165:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ahuja MR (2011) Strategies for conservation of germplasm in endemic redwoods in the face on climate change: a review. Plant Genet Resour 9:411–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ahuja MR, Neale DB (2002) Origins of polyploidy in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl.) and relationship of coast redwood to other genera of Taxodiaceae. Silvae Genet 51:93–100Google Scholar
  13. Ahuja MR, Neale DB (2005) Evolution of genome size in conifers. Silvae Genet 54:126–137Google Scholar
  14. Aitkin-Christie J, Singh AP (1987) Cold storage of tissue cultures. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Cell and tissue culture in forestry, vol 1. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 285–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aitkin SN, Yeaman S, Holiday JA, Wang T, Curtis-McLane S (2008) Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes of tree populations. Evol Appl 1:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Allan RP, Soden BJ (2008) Atmospheric warming and the amplification of precipitation extremes. Science 321:1481–1494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Allnutt TR, Newton AC, Lara A, Premoli A, Armesto JJ, Vergara R, Gardner M (1999) Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce), a threatened South American conifer. Mol Ecol 8:975–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Anderson JT, Inouye DW, McKinney AM, Colauti RI, Mitchell-Olds (2012) Pheotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change. Proc R Soc B 279:3843–3852PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Arnaud Y, Franclet A, Tranvan H, Jacques M (1993) Micropropagation and rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb) Endl.): a review. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 50:273–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ball EA (1950) Differentiation in a callus culture of Sequoia sempervirens. Growth 14:295–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ball EA, Morris DM, Reydelius JA (1978) Cloning of Sequoia sempervirens from mature trees through tissue culture. Round Table Conference. In Vitro Multiplication of Woody Species, Gamboloux, Belgium, pp. 181–226Google Scholar
  22. Battles JJ, Robards T, Das A et al (2008) Climate change impacts on forest growth and tree mortality: a data-driven modeling study in the mixed-conifer forest of Sierra Nevada, California. Clim Change 87(Supplement 1):S193–S213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bellard C, Bertelsmeier C, Leadley P, Thuiller W, Courchamp F (2012) Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecol Lett 15:365–377PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bellard C, Leclerc C, Leroy B et al (2014) Vulnerability of biodiversity hotspots to global change. Global Ecol Biogeogr. doi: 10.1111/geb.12228 Google Scholar
  25. Boe KN (1974) Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. - Redwood. In: Schopmeyer CS (ed) Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Forest Service, USDA, Washington DC, pp 764–766Google Scholar
  26. Bon MC, Monteuuis O (1991) Rejuvenation of a 100-year old Sequoiadendron giganteum through in vitro meristem culture. I. Organogenesis and morphological arguments. Physiol Plant 81:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bon MC, Riccari F, Monteuuis O (1994) Influence of phase change within a 90-year old Sequoia sempervirens on its in vitro organogenic capacity and protein patterns. Trees 8:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bonner FT (1990) Storage of seeds: potential and limitations for germplasm conservation. For Ecol Manage 35:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Botkin DB, Saxe H, Arauju MB et al (2007) Forcasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience 57:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boulay M (1978) Multiplication rapide du Sequoia sempervirens en culture in vitro. Annales AFOCEL, pp 37–66Google Scholar
  31. Brinegar C (2012) Rangewide genetic variation in coast redwood populations at a chloroplast microsatellite locus. In: Standiford RB, Weller TJ, Piirto DD, Stuart JD (eds) Proceedings of the coast redwood forests in a changing California: a symposium for scientists and managers. USDA, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-238, Albany, CA, pp 241–249Google Scholar
  32. Brinegar C, Bruno D, Kirkbride R, Glavas S, Udransky U (2007) Applications of redwood genotyping by using microsatellite markers. In: Standiford RB, Giusti GA, Valachovic Y, et al (eds) Proceedings of the redwood region forest science symposium: what does the future hold? USDA, Forest Service, Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-194, Albany, CA, pp 47–56Google Scholar
  33. Chaney RW (1950) A revision of fossil Sequoia and Taxodium in western North Amerixca based on the recent discovery of Metasequoia. Trans Am Philos Soc N Ser 40:171–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chen XY, Li YY, Wu TY, Zhang X, Lu HP (2003) Size-class differences in genetic structure of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae) plantations in Shanghai. Silvae Genet 52:107–109Google Scholar
  35. Chu K, Cooper SC (1999) An ecological reconnaissance in the native home of Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Arnoldia 59:40–46Google Scholar
  36. Craufurd PQ, Wheeler TR (2009) Climate change and flowering time in annual crops. J. Exptl Bot 60:2529–2539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cruz-Cruz CA, Gonzalez-Arnao MT, Engelmann F (2013) Biotechnology and conservation of plant biodiversity. Resources 2:73–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cui MY, Yu S, Liu M, Li YY (2010) Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Metasequoia glyptostoboides (Taxodiaceae). Conserv Genet Resour 2:19–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S et al (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances. Bioscience 51:723–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davis MB, Shaw RG, Etterson JR (2005) Evolutionary responses to climate change. Ecology 86:1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Douhovnikoff V, Dodd RS (2011) Linkage divergence in coast redwoos (Sequoia sempervirens), detected by a new set of nuclear microsatellite loci. Am Midl Nat 165:22–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Engelmann F (2004) Plant cryopreservation: progress and prospects. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plants 40:427–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Evarts J, Popper M (2001) Conservation and management of redwood forests. In: Evarts J, Popper M (eds) Coast redwood a natural and cultural history. Cachuma Press, Los Olivos, CA, pp 165–205Google Scholar
  44. FAO (2014a) The state of world’s forest genetic resources. RomeGoogle Scholar
  45. FAO (2014b) Genebank standards for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rev. ed. RomeGoogle Scholar
  46. Fernandez M, Hamilton HH, Kueppers LM (2015) Back to the future: using historical climate variation to project near-term shifts in habitat suitable for coast redwood. Global Change Biol. doi:10.111/geb13027Google Scholar
  47. Fins L, Libby WJ (1982) Population variation in Sequoiadendron: seed and seedling studies, vegetative propagation and isozyme variation. Silvae Genet 31:102–110Google Scholar
  48. Fins L, Libby WJ (1994) Genetics of giant sequoia. USDA Forest Serv Gen Tech Rep PSW 151:65–68Google Scholar
  49. Foden W, Mace G, Vié JC et al (2008) Species susceptibility to climate change impacts. In: Vié J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) The 2008 review of the IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN Gland, Switzerland, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  50. Franks SJ, Sim S, Weis AE (2007) Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1278–1282PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gadek PA, Alpers DL, Heslewood MM, Quinn CJ (2000) Relationship within Cupressaceae sensu latu: a combined morphological and molecular approach. Am J Bot 87:1044–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gaira KS, Rawal RS, Rawat B, Bhatt ID (2014) Impact of climate chanhe on the flowering of Rhododendron arboretum in central Himalaya, India. Curr Sci 106:1735–1738Google Scholar
  53. Geburek T, Konrad H (2007) Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked. Conserv Biol 22:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gonzalez-Arnao MT, Mratinez-Montero ME, Cruz-Cruz CA, Engelmann F (2014) Advances in cryogenic techniques for the long-term preservation of plant biodiversity. In: Ahuja MR, Ramawat KG (eds) Biotechnology and biodiversity. Springer, Berlin, pp 129–170Google Scholar
  55. Guinon M, Larson JB, Spethmann W (1982) Frost resistance and early growth of Sequoiadendron giganteum seedlings of different origin. Silvae Genet 31:173–178Google Scholar
  56. Hair JB (1968) The chromosomes of the Cupressaceae. I. Tetraclineae and Actinostrobeae (Callitroideae). NZ J Bot 6:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Halmagyi A, Deliu C (2011) Conservation of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl.) shoot apices by encapsulation-dehydration. Contributti Botanice 46:117–125Google Scholar
  58. Hamrick JL (2004) Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. For Ecol Manage 197:323–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hamrick JL, Godt MJW, Sherman-Boyles SL (1992) Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forest 6:95–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S et al (2007) Protected areas needs in a changing climate. Front Ecol Environ 5:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hartesfeldt RJ (1969) Sequoia in Europe with a review of their discovery and their resultant importation into Europe. Final Contract Report to the National Park Service. Contract # 14-10-0434, 22 pGoogle Scholar
  62. Hartesveldt RJ, Harry HT, Schellhammer HS, Stecker RR (1975) The giant sequoia of the Sierra Nevada. U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service, Washington, D.C., p 180Google Scholar
  63. Hattemer HH (1995) Concepts and requirements in the conservation of forest genetic resources. Forest Genet 2:125–134Google Scholar
  64. Heald RC (1986) Management of giant sequoia at Blodgett Forest Research Station. USDA Gen Tech Rep PSW-95, Berkeley, CA, pp 37–39Google Scholar
  65. Hendricks DR, Søndergaard P (1998) Metasequoia glyptostroboides 50 years out of China. Observations from the United States and Denmark. Dansk Dendrologisk Årsskrift 16:6–24Google Scholar
  66. Hoffmann AA, Willi Y (2008) Detecting genetic response to environmental change. Nat Rev Genet 9:421–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hoffmann AA, Sgro CM (2011) Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature 470:479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ibáñez I, Clark JS, Dietze MC et al (2006) Predicting biodiversity change: outside the climate envelop, beyond the species area curve. Ecology 87:1896–1906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Iler AM, Høye TK, Inouye DW, Schmidt NM (2013) Nonlinear flowering responses to climate: are species approaching their limits of phonological change? Phil Trans R Soc B 368:20120489PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007. The physical science basis. Summary for policymakers. www.ipcc.ch
  71. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Summary for policymakers. www.ipcc.ch
  72. IUCN (2013) The IUCN list of threatened species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/30926/0
  73. Iverson LR, Prasad AM, Schwartz MW (2005) Predicting potential changes in suitable habitat and distribution by 2100 for tree species in the eastern United States. J Agric Meteorol 61:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Iverson LR, Prasad AM, Matthews SN, Peters M (2008) Estimating potential habitat for 134 Eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios. For Ecol Manage 254:390–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Iverson LR, McKenzie D (2013) Tree-species range shifts in the changing climate: detecting, modeling, assisting. Landscape Ecol 28:879–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Javeline D, Hellmann JJ, Cornejo RC, Shufeldt G (2013) Expert opinion on climate change and threats to biodiversity 63:666–673Google Scholar
  77. Jin Y, Bi Q, Guan W, Mao JF (2015) Development of 23 novel polymorphic EST-SSR markers for the endangered relict conifer Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Appl Plant Sci 3(9):150038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johnson LC (1974) Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu and Cheng - Dawn Redwood. In: Schopmeyer CS (ed) Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Forest Service, USDA, Washington DC, pp 540–542Google Scholar
  79. Johnstone JA, Dawson TE (2010) Climate context and ecological implications of summer fog decline in the cost redwood region. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:4533–4538PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kelly AE, Goulden ML (2007) Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11823–11826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khoshoo TN (1959) Polyploidy in gymnosperms. Evolution 13:24–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Knigge W (1994) Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) in Europe. USDA Gen Tech Rep PSW 151:28–48Google Scholar
  83. Korban SS, Sul IW (2007) Micropropagation of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) In: Jain SM, Häggman (eds) Protocols for micropropagation of woody trees and fruits. Springer, Berlin, pp 23–32Google Scholar
  84. Kuser JE (1981) Redwoods around the world. Am Forest 87:30–32Google Scholar
  85. Kuser JE (1999) Metasequoia glyptostroboides: Fifty years of growth in North America. Arnoldia 59:76–79Google Scholar
  86. Kuser J E, Bailly A, Franclet A, Libby WJ et al (1995) Early results of a range-wide provenance test of Sequoia sempervirens. Forest Genetics Resources, FAO, Rome, No. 23:21–25Google Scholar
  87. Kuser JE, Sheely DL, Hendricks DR (1997) Genetic variation in two ex situ collections of the rare Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Cupressaceae). Silvae Genet 46:258–264Google Scholar
  88. Lara A, Villalba R (1993) A 3,820-year temperature record from alerce tree rings in southern South America. Science 260:1104–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ledig FT (1986) Conservation strategies for forest gene resources. For Ecol Manage 14:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ledig FT (1988) The conservation of diversity in forest trees. Bioscience 38:471–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ledig FT (2012) Climate change and conservation. Acta Slv Hung 8:57–74Google Scholar
  92. Ledig FT, Kitzmiller JH (1992) Genetic strategies for reforestation in the face of global climate change. For Ecol Manage 50:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. LePage BA, Yand H, Matsumoto M (2005) The evolution and biogeographic history of Metasequoia. In: Le Page BA, Williams CJ, Yang H (eds) The geobiology and ecology of Metasdequoia. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Leng Q, Fan SH, Wang L, Yang H et al (2007) Database of native Metasequoia glyptostroboides trees in China based on new consensus surveys and expeditions. Bull Peabody Mus Nat Hist 48:185–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Li J (1999) Metasequoia: an overview of its phylogeny, reproductive biology, and ecotypic variation. Arnoldia 59:54–59Google Scholar
  96. Li L (1987) The origin of Sequoia sempervirens (Taxodiaceae) based on karyotype. Acta Botanica Yunnancia 99:192–197Google Scholar
  97. Li YY, Chen XY, Zhang X, Wu TT, Lu HP, Cai YW (2005) Genetic differences between wild and artificial populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides: implications of species recovery. Conserv Biol 19:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Libby WJ (1981) Some observations on Sequoiadendron and Calocedrus in Europe. Calif Forest Forest Prod No(49):1–12Google Scholar
  99. Libby WJ, Anekonda TS, Kuser JE (1996) The genetic architecture of coast redwood. In: Leblanc J (ed) Proceeding of the conference on coast redwood forest ecology and management. Humboldt State University, Arcata, pp 147–149Google Scholar
  100. Littell JS, Oneil EE, McKenzie D et al (2010) Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climate change in Washington State, USA. Clim Change 102:129–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Liu C, Xia X, Yin W, Huang L, Zhou J (2006) Shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis from needles of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.). Plant Cell Rep 25:621–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McKenney DW, Pedlar JH, Lawrence K, Campbell K, Hutchison MF (2007) Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of North American trees. Bioscience 57:939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Melchior GH, Hermann S (1987) Differences in growth performance of four provenances of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl) Buchh.). Silvae Genet 38:65–68Google Scholar
  104. Melchior GH, Muhs HJ, Stephan BR (1986) Tactics for forest tree resources in the Federal Republic of Germany. For Ecol Manage 17:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Metcalf W (1924) Artificial reproduction of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). J Forest 22:873–893Google Scholar
  106. Millar CI (1993) Conservation of germplasm of forest trees. In: Ahuja MR, Libby WJ (eds) Clonal forestry II. Conservation and application. Springer, Berlin, pp 42–65Google Scholar
  107. Moneuuis O (1987) In vitro meristem culture of juvenile and mature Sequoiadendron giganteum. Tree Physiol 3:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Monteuuis O (1991) Rejuvenation of a 100-year-old Sequoiadendron giganteum through in vitro meristem culture. I. Organogenic and morphological arguments. Physiol Plant 81:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Monteuuis O, Bon MC (1989) Rejuvenation of a 100 yr old giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum Buchholz) through in vitro meristem culture. Ann Sci For 46 (Supplement):183s–186sGoogle Scholar
  110. Monteuuis O, Doulbeau S, Verdeil JL (2008) DNA methylation in different origin clonal offspring from a mature Sequoiadendron giganteum genotype. Trees 22:779–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Noss RF, Strittholt JR, Heilman GE, Frost PA, Sorensen M (2000) Conservation planning in the redwoods region. In: Noss RF (ed) The redwood forest. History, ecology, and conservation of redwoods. Save-the-Redwoods League. Island Press, Washington DC, pp 201–228Google Scholar
  112. O’Gorman PA, Schneider T (2009) The extreme basis for increase in precipitation in simulations of the 21st-century climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:14773–14777PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Olson DF, Roy DF, Walters GA (1990) Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. Redwood. In: Burns RM, Honkala BH (eds) Silvics of North America. Vol 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington DC, pp 541–551Google Scholar
  114. Ornduff R (1998) The Sequoia sempervirens (coast redwood) forest of the pacific coast, USA. In: Lederman AD (ed) Coastally restricted forests.Oxford University Press, New York, pp 221–236Google Scholar
  115. Ozudogru EA, Kirdok E, Kaya E, Capuana M, Beneli C, Engelmann F (2011) Cryopreservation of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don.) in vitro buds using vitrification-based techniques. CryoLetters 32:99–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Parker T, Donoso C (1993) Natural regeneration of Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile and Argentina. For Ecol Manage 59:63–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Parmesan C, Yohe G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pautasso M (2013) Forest ecosystems and global change: the case study of insurbia. Annali di Botanica 3:1–29Google Scholar
  120. Pearson RG, Stanton JC, Shoemaker KT et al (2014) Life history and spatial traits predict extinction risk due to climate change. Nat Clim Change 4:217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Peters RL (1990) Effects of global warming on forests. For Ecol Manage 35:13–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pitterman J, Stuart SA, Dawson TE, Moreau A (2012) Cenozoic climate change shaped the evolutionary ecophysiology of the Cupressaceae conifers. Proc Natl Acd Sci USA 109:9647–9652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Premoli AC, Kitzberger T, Veblen TT (2000) Conservation genetics of the endangered conifer Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile and Argentina. Conserv Genet 1:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Premoli AC, Vergara R, Souto CP, Lara A, Newton AC (2003) Lowland valleys shelter the ancient conifer Fitzroya cupressoides in the Central Depression of southern Chile. J Roy Soc NZ 33:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Premoli A, Quiroga P, Souto C, Gardner M (2013) Fitzroya cupressoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e. T30926A279874Google Scholar
  126. Pritchard HW, Moat JF, Ferraz JBS et al (2014) Innovative approaches to the preservation of forest trees. For Ecol Manage 333:88098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Quirk J, McDowell NG, Leake JR, Hudson PJ, Beerling DJ (2013) Increased susceptibility to drought-induced mortality in Sequoia sempervirens (Cupressaceae) trees under Cenozoic atmospheric carbon dioxide starvation. Am J Bot 100:582–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rehfeldt GE, Jaquish BC, Sáenz-Romero C et al (2014) Comparative genetic response to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: restoration. For Ecol Managm 324:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rice N, Cordeiro G, Shepherd M et al (2006) DNA banks and their role in facilitating the application of genomics to plant germplasm. Plant Genet Resour 4:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rogers DL (1997) Inheritance of allozymes from seed tissues of the hexaploid gymnosperm, Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. (Coast redwood). Heredity 78:166–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rogers DL (1999) Allozyme polymorphisms discriminate among coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) siblings. J Hered 90:429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rogers DL (2000) Genotypic diversity and clones size in old-growth populations of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Can J Bot 78:1408–1419Google Scholar
  133. Root TL, MacMynowski DP, Mastrandrea MD, Schneider SH (2005) Human modified temperature induce species changes: joint attribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:7465–7469PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Satoh K (1999) Metasequoia travels the globe. Arnoldia 59:72–75Google Scholar
  135. Sawyer JO, Gray J, West J, Thorburgh DA, Noss RF, Engbeck JH, Marcot BG, Raymond R (2000) History of redwoods and redwood forests. In: Noss RF (ed) The redwood forest. History, ecology, and conservation of redwoods. Save-the-Redwoods League. Island Press, Washington DC, pp 81–118Google Scholar
  136. Saylor LC, Simons HA (1970) Karyology of Sequoia sempervirens: karyotype and accessory chromosomes. Cytologia 35:294–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Schlarbaum SE, Tsuchiya T (1984a) Chromosome study of coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl.). Silvae Genet 33:56–62Google Scholar
  138. Schlarbaum SE, Tsuchiya T (1984b) Cytotaxonomy and phylogeny in certain species of Taxodiaceae. Plant Syst Evol 147:29–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Schubert G H (1952) Germination of various coniferous seeds after cold storage. USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-83, 7 pGoogle Scholar
  140. Staudt A, Leidner AK, Howard J et al (2013) The added complications of climate change: understanding and managing biodiversity and ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 11:494–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. St. Clair JB, Howe GT (2011) Strategies for conserving forest genetic resources in the face of climate change. Turk J Bot 35:403–409Google Scholar
  142. Stebbins GL (1948) The chromosomes and relationship of Metasequoia and Sequoia. Science 108:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sugiyama M, Shiogama H, Emori S (2010) Precipitation extreme changes exceeding moisture content increases in MIROC and IPCC climate models. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:571–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sul IW, Korban SS (2005) Direct shoot organogenesis from needles of three genotypes of Sequoia semperviren. Plant Cell Tissue Org 80:353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE et al (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Thomas P, LePage BA (2011) The end of an era—the conservation status of redwoods and other members of the former Taxodiaceae in the 21st century. Jpn J Hist Bot 19:89–100Google Scholar
  147. Thuiller W, Albert C, Araújo MB et al (2008) Predicting global change impacts on plant species distributions: future challenges. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 9:137–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Trenberth KE (2011) Changes in precipitation with climate change. Climate Res 47:123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Urban MC (2015) Accelerating extinction risk from climate change. Science 348:571–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. US Environmantal Protection Agency (2000) Global warming—impacts: forests. Document, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang B, Liu DL, Asseng S, Macadam I, Yu Q (2015) Impact of climate change on wheat flowering time in eastern Australia. Agric Forest Meteorol 209:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Weatherspoon CP (1990) Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz, Giant Sequoia.. In: Burns RM, Honkala BH (eds) Silvics of North America. Vol 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington DC, pp 552–562Google Scholar
  153. Weed AS, Ayres MP, Hicke JA (2013) Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests. Ecol Monogr 83:441–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wilczynski S, Mutter E, Wertz B (2014) The application of the tree ring chronology in assessing ecological requirements of Metasequoia glyptostroboides growing in southern Poland. Geochronometria 41:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Williams CJ (2005) Ecological characteristics of Metasequoia glyptostroboides. In: LePage BA, Williams CJ, Yang H (eds) The geobiology and ecology of Metasequoia. Springer, Berlin, pp 285–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wylie B, Rigge M, Brisco B et al (2014) Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in Yukon river basin boreal forest. Remote Sens 6:9145–9169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Yang ZY, Ran JH, Wang XQ (2012) Three genome-based phylogeny of Cupressaceae s.i.: further evidence for the evolution of gymnosperms and southern hemisphere biogeography. Mol Phylogenet Evol 64:452–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. York RA, O’Hara KL, Battles JJ (2013) Density effects on giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) growth thru 22 years: implications for restoration and plantation management. West J Appl For 28:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New PaltzUSA

Personalised recommendations