Advertisement

Public Works Programs as a Strong Means for Land and Water Conservation in Iran

  • Zahra Karimi
Chapter
Part of the Binzagr Institute for Sustainable Prosperity book series (BISP)

Abstract

In the past three decades, agriculture has expanded very rapidly and the main source of irrigation has been underground water in Iran. Mistaken policies regarding extraction of underground water and inefficient supervision on the loans that were allocated for renovation of irrigation system were the main reasons behind the water crisis in Iran. At the same time, the country faced the problem of increasing unemployment and underemployment, especially in dry lands and drought-stricken regions. With rising poverty and malnourishment, crimes and social problems grew very rapidly; conserving water and land and creating job opportunities became the most important priorities. Farming return is generally low, and private firms do not want to run the risk of investing in agricultural activities. Public works program is an effective means to prevent agricultural problems from becoming a catastrophe. Projects which involve direct involvement of local communities, such as providing water delivery systems, drainage, sewage, and sanitation, help to generate employment opportunities and avoid poverty and its social consequences. Public works schemes can mitigate the threat of expanding water crisis and revitalize the agricultural sector through government investment and direct involvement of local beneficiaries.

References

  1. Abbott, J. (1995). Community Participation and Its Relationship to Community Development. Community Development Journal, 30, 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadvand, M., Karami, E., & Iman, M. T. (2011). Modeling the Determinants of the Social Impacts of Agricultural Development Projects. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31, 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhaduri, A. (2005). First Priority: Guarantee Employment and the Right to Information. Economic and Political Weekly, 40(4), 26–36.Google Scholar
  4. Drèze, J., & Oldiges, C. (2009). Work in Progress. Frontline, 26(4), 2–4.Google Scholar
  5. Dullien, S., Herr, H., & Kellerrmann, C. (2011). Decent Capitalism. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  6. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2004). A Review of Carbon Sequestration Projects. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  7. Grosh, M., Ninno, C., Tesliuc, E., & Ouerghi, A. with the Assistance of A. Milazzo and C. Weigand. (2008). For Protection and Promotion: The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets. Washington: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  8. Heckathorn, D. D. (1991). Collective Sanctions and Group Heterogeneity: Cohesion and Polarization in Normative Systems. Working Paper. Storrs: University of Connecticut, Department of Sociology.Google Scholar
  9. Hirway, I. (2007). India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Challenges Ahead. Centre for Development Alternatives Working Paper 9.Google Scholar
  10. International Labour Office. (2009). Global Jobs Pact. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/jobspact/lang--en/index.htm
  11. Iran Central Bank of Iran. (2015). Time Series Data of Economic and Social Indicators. Tehran: Central Bank of Iran.Google Scholar
  12. Iran Ministry of Agriculture. (2014). Iran’s Climate and Agricultural Production. Tehran: Ministry of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  13. Jafari, M., & Bakhshoudeh, M. (2008). Distribution of Poverty Among Rural Households in Iran. Agriculture Economics and Development, 61, 103–123.Google Scholar
  14. Jalal, H. (2007). Promotion Nationale: Forty-Five Years of Experience of Public Works in Morrocco. Levy Working Paper Series 524. Khabarfarsi. Shortage of Drinking Water in Iran, Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://khabarfarsi.com/ext/11271737
  15. Keynes, J. M. (1936). General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Keynes, J. M. (1937). The General Theory of Employment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 51, 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khaledi, K., Yazdani, S., & Haghighat, A. (2008). Rural Poverty in Iran and Its Effective Factors. Iran’s Economic Researches, 3, 205–208.Google Scholar
  18. Khera, R. (2009). Women Workers and Perceptions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in India. Retrieved November 2011, from http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/7832/1/Nayak_womenworkersinindia.pdf
  19. Kregel, J. (2006). Employer of Last Resort as an Alternative Development Strategy. Presentation at The Levy Economics Institute Conference on Employment Guarantee Policies—Theory and Practice.Google Scholar
  20. Lichbach, M. I., & Arbor, A. (1995). The Rebel’s Dilemma. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mankiw, N. G. (2010). Macroeconomics. New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Marshall, A. (2004). Labour Market Policies and Regulations in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico: Programmes and Impacts. ILO Employment Strategy Paper 13.Google Scholar
  23. Minsky, H. (1986). Stabilizing an Unstable Economy. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Mitchell, W. F. (2001). “Fiscal Policy and the Job Guarantee” from Centre for Full Employment and Equity Working Paper 01/09. Newcastle: Newcastle University.Google Scholar
  25. Ninan, K. N., & Lakshmikanthamma, S. (2001). Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Watershed Development Project in Karnataka, India. Ambio, 30, 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ostrom, E., Gardner, R., & Walker, J. (2005). Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Rao, C., Ray, S. K., & Subbarao, K. (1988). Unstable Agriculture and Droughts: Implications for Policy. Delhi: Vikas Publications.Google Scholar
  29. Ravallion, M. (2005). Evaluating Anti-poverty Programs. Policy Research Working Paper Series 3625, Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  30. Robinson, J. (1949). Introduction to the Theory of Employment. Macmillan: London.Google Scholar
  31. Saleh, I., Varmazyari, H., & Moslemzadeh, H. (2008). Investigation the Potential of Investment in Agricultural Sector of Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture & Environment Sciences, 2, 108–112.Google Scholar
  32. Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Subbarao, K. (2003). Systemic Shocks and Social Protection: Role and Effectiveness of Public Works Programs. Washington: World Bank. Retrieved February 2015, from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/SP-Discussionpapers/Safety-Nets-DP/0302.pdf
  34. Subbarao, K., Ninno, C., Andrews, C., & Rodriguez-Alas, C. (2010). The Design and Implementation of Public Works Programs. A Toolkit for Practitioners. Social Protection Discussion Papers Series, Washington: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  35. Subbarao, K., Ninno, C., Andrews, C., & Rodríguez-Alas, C. (2013). Public Works as a Safety Net. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  36. Sudarshan, R. (2009). Examining India’s National Regional Employment Guarantee Act: Its Impact and Women’s Participation. Retrieved 2011, from www.socialprotectionasia.org/pdf/ISST-SPA-WP05.pdf
  37. Tabibian, M. (2014). Water Crisis in Iran. Retrieved from www.mtabibian.net/water-crisis
  38. Tcherneva, P. R. (2005). The Art of Job Creation: Promises and Problems of the Argentinean Experience. Centre for Full Employment and Price Stability.Google Scholar
  39. Tcherneva, P. R., & Wray, R. (2005). Gender and the Job Guarantee: The Impact of Argentina’s Jefes Program on Female Heads of Poor Households. C-FEPS Working Paper 50.Google Scholar
  40. UNDP. (2015a). Carbon Sequestration Project (CSP)—Phase II: What Is the Project About?. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://www.ir.undp.org/content/iran/en/home/operations/projects/environment_and_sustainable_development/carbon-sequestration-project--csp----phase-ii.html
  41. UNDP. (2015b). Marking 10 Years of Combating Desertification by Carbon Sequestration Project. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://www.ir.undp.org/content/iran/en/home/presscenter/articles/2013/05/05/marking-10-years-of-combating-desertification-by-carbon-sequestration-project.html
  42. Walker, R. A., & Brechin, G. (2010). The Living New Deal: The Unsung Benefits of the New Deal for the United States and California. Retrieved 2011, from http://www.irle.berkeley.edu/workingpapers/220-10.pdf
  43. Wray, L. R., & Forstater, M. (2004). Full Employment and Economic Justice. In D. Champlin & J. Knoedler (Eds.), The Institutionalist Tradition in Labor Economics. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  44. Yercan, M. (2003). Management Turning-Over and Participatory Management of Irrigation Schemes: A Case Study of the Gediz River Basin in Turkey. Agricultural Water Management, 62, 205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahra Karimi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MazandaranBabolsarIran

Personalised recommendations