Advertisement

Seodaemun Prison: From Symbol of Fear and Violence to Symbol of Freedom and Victory

  • Hyun Kyung Lee
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cultural Heritage and Conflict book series (PSCHC)

Abstract

Established by the Japanese authorities during the Japanese colonial occupation of Korea, Seodaemun Prison was the first modern system of formal control in Korea. Lee uses place biography to trace the changing roles of Seodaemun Prison from the pre-colonial period, throughout the colonial period, and to the post-colonial period, focusing on its changing meanings and visual representation. She questions the extent to which Seodaemun Prison changed from a symbol of fear and violence to one of freedom and victory. To this end, Lee pays particular attention to how power struggles and memory conflicts in the post-colonial period led to the transformation of the original prison to its current incarnation as the Seodaemun Prison History Hall and Independence Park.

References

  1. Ahn, Ho-gi. 1998. “Iljeha Aegukjisa Neokseorin Jihagambang, gomunsil, Sahyeongjang dung Wonhyeongbokwon Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwan Onul Gaegwan” [Today, the Opening of the Seodaemun Prison History Hall in Which Underground Cells, Torture Chambers, the Execution Ground Have Been Restored to Their Original State During the Japanese Occupation]. The Kyunghyang Shinmun [The Kyunghyang Newspaper], November 5. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1998110500329117001&editNo=40&printCount=1&publishDate=1998-11-05&officeId=00032&pageNo=17&printNo=16583&publishType=00010.
  2. Ahn, Chang-hyeon. 1999. “Hyeongmuso Gwuitungie Seorin Hanul Saranghapnida” [I Love the ‘Han’ That Resided in the Corner of the Prison]. Hangyeorye Sinmun [Hangyeorye Newspaper], December 29. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1999122900289121001&editNo=6&printCount=1&publishDate=1999-1229&officeId=00028&pageNo=21&printNo=3697&publishType=00010.
  3. Ashmore, Wendy. 2009. “Biographies of Place at Quiriguá, Guatemala.” In The Archaeology of Meaningful Places, edited by Brenda J. Bowser and María Nieves Zedeño, 148–165. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, Kate. 2009. A Biography of No Place. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. CHA. 2006. Former Seodaemun Prison in Seoul. [Online] CHA, Accessed September 4, 2013. http://english.cha.go.kr/english/search_plaza_new/ECulresult_Db_View.jsp?VdkVgwKey=13,03240000,11.
  6. Choi, Mo-ran. 2012. “Bulgun Beokdol Dasi Ibeun Seodaemun Hyeongmuso” [Seodaemun Prison That Is Covered with the Red Bricks Again]. Joongang ilbo [Joongang Daily], March 23. http://news.jtbc.joins.com/article/article.aspx?news_id=NB10086088.
  7. Cultural Heritage Administration. 2003. Gu Seoul Guchiso Silcheuk Bogoseo [The Report of Surveying the Former Seoul Detention Centre]. Daejeon: Cultural Heritage Administration.Google Scholar
  8. De Ceuster, Koen. 2000. “The Changing Nature of National Icons in the Seoul Landscape.” The Review of Korean Studies 3 (2): 73–103.Google Scholar
  9. Dictionary of the Modern and Contemporary History of Korea. 2005. “Inminhyeongmyeongdang Sageon.” The Compilation Committee of the Dictionary of Korean History. Accessed January 8, 2014. http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=920355&cid=42958&categoryId=42958.
  10. Foote, Kenneth E. 2003. Shadowed Ground: America’s Landscapes of Violence and Tragedy. 2nd ed. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  11. Foucault, Michel. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  12. Garden, Mary-Catherine E. 2006. “The Heritagescape: Looking at Landscapes of the Past.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 12 (5): 394–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garden, Mary-Catherine E. 2009. “The Heritagescape: Looking at Heritage Sites.” In Heritage Studies: Methods and Approaches, edited by Marie Louise Stig Sørensen and John Carman, 270–291. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Glionna, John M. 2011. “A Complex Feeling Tugs at Koreans.” Los Angeles Time, January 5. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jan/05/world/la-fg-south-korea-han-20110105.
  15. Gosden, Chris, and Yvonne Marshall. 1999. “The Cultural Biography of Objects.” World Archaeology 31 (2): 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gwon, Sun-taek. 1987. “‘Minjokhon Bojonhage Deoi Gibbeoyo’ Yek Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Sajeokboho Choi Seo-Myeon ssi” [I Am so Pleased to Preserve “Korean Spirit” Mr. Chio Seo-Myeon Who Preserves the Historic Site of the Former Seodaemun Prison Site]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], March 28. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1987032800209205006&edtNo=2&printCount=1&publishDate=1987-03-28&officeId=00020&pageNo=5&printNo=20149&publishType=00020.
  17. Han, Hong-gu. 2009. “Yeoksajeok Hyeonjangun Ounlul Bichunun Geouli Deoigo: Dongnimgongwonggwa Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwan” [The Historic Site Becomes a Mirror Reflecting ‘Today’: The Independence Park and Seodaemun Prison History Hall]. Woori Gyoyook [Our Education] 229: 54–61.Google Scholar
  18. Heo, Won-sun. 1991. “Yek Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Dongribgongwonhwahan Sonanui Hyeonjang, Minjokhon Woodduk” [The Korean Spirit Is Risen on the Site of the Korean Painful History Where the Former Seodaemun Prison Was Transformed into the Independence Park]. The Kyunghyang Shinmun [The Kyunghyang Newspaper], June 25. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1991062500329117001&edtNo=15&printCount=1&publishDate=1991-06-25&officeId=00032&pageNo=17&printNo=14091&publishType=00010.
  19. Hong, Chan-sik. 1992. “8wol 15il Gaejang Apdun Seodaemun Dongribgongwon” [Seodaemun Independence Park That Is Waiting for Its Opening on 15th August]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], May 11. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1992051100209220004&editNo=2&printCount=1&publishDate=1992-05-11&officeId=00020&pageNo=20&printNo=21820&publishType=00020.
  20. Hong, Sun-min. 2010. Woorigunggwol Iyagi [The Story of Our Palace]. 20th ed. Paju: Cheongnyeonsa.Google Scholar
  21. Hong, Seong-uk. 2011. Panopticon- Jeongbosaheoi Jeongbogamok [Panopticon—Information Society and Information Prison]. Seoul: Chaeksesang.Google Scholar
  22. Im, Chae-cheong. 1986. “‘Seodaemun Guchiso’rul ‘Yujeokji’ro” [From ‘Seodaemu Prison’ to the ‘Historic Site’]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], May 20. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1986052000209209001&editNo=2&printCount=1&publishDate=1986-05-20&officeId=00020&pageNo=9&printNo=19886&publishType=00020.
  23. Im, Chae-cheong. 1991. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Gongwon Gaebale Muchin Sungukui Hyeonjang” [The Site of the Sacrifice, Buried by the Plan of the Seodaemun Prison Park]. Dongda ilbo [Donga Daily], April 11. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1991041100209221001&editNo=2&printCount=1&publishDate=1991-04-11&officeId=00020&pageNo=21&printNo=21440&publishType=00020.
  24. Jeong, Jun-yeong. 1992. “Dongribgongwon Nanjangpan Buggureopda” [It Is Ashamed of the Confusion of the Independence Park]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], September 29. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1992092900209215013&editNo=3&printCount=1&publishDate=1992-09-29&officeId=00020&pageNo=15&printNo=21955&publishType=00020.
  25. Jeong, Jun-yeong. 1994. “Dongribgwan Bokwon Saup Chujinjeon Wichi Seonjeong dung Jaegeomtohara” [Reconsider the Decision Regarding Its Location and Other Things Before Starting the Restoration of the Independence Hall]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], September 22. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1994092200209119009&editNo=45&printCount=1&publishDate=1994-09-22&officeId=00020&pageNo=19&printNo=22633&publishType=00010.
  26. Jeong, Yang-mo. 1996. “Munhwaui Heokbaek Nonriro Bondamyeon…” [If We Saw It in Black and White from the Cultural Point of View]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily]. In Gu Joseon Chongdokbu Geunmul Cheolgeo mit Gukribjoongang Bakmulgwan Cheongsa Jeonggaechuk Gaegwan Gwanryongasa Moum [The Collection of Newspaper Articles Regarding the Demolition of the Former Japanese Government-General Building and the Reconstruction of National Museum of Korea], edited by National Museum of Korea, 271. Seoul: National Museum of Korea.Google Scholar
  27. Jeong, Ji-yun. 1998. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwan Gaegwan” [The Opening of the Seodaemun Prison History Hall]. The Kyunghyang Shinmun [The Kyunghyang Newspaper], November 6. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1998110600329121004&editNo=40&printCount=1&publishDate=1998-11-06&officeId=00032&pageNo=21&printNo=16584&publishType=00010.
  28. Jin, Yong-hak. 1998. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwan Gaegwan” [The Opening of the Seodaemun Prison History Hall]. Maeil Gyeongje Sinmun [Maeil Gyeongje Newspaper], November 6. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1998110600099131008&editNo=15&printCount=1&publishDate=1998-11-06&officeId=00009&pageNo=31&printNo=10209&publishType=00010.
  29. Jo, Hyeon-gyeong. 1995. “Ilje Manhaeng Jeonsoheoi Seolmyeongmun Ungmang: Siminui Moksori” [Mess About the Exhibition Explanation of Japanese Brutality During the Japanese Occupation: The Voice of the Citizens]. Hangyeorye Sinmun [Hangyeorye Newspaper], February 2. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1995020200289110005&editNo=5&printCount=1&publishDate=1995-02-02&officeId=00028&pageNo=10&printNo=2138&publishType=00010.
  30. Jo, Yeon-hyeon. 1996. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Seongyeokhwa Pyoryu” [The Site of Seodaemun Prison Encounters Difficulties in Sanctification]. Hangyeorye Sinmun [Hangyeorye Newspaper]. Accessed March 26, 2012. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?publishDate=1996-06-19&officeId=00028&pageNo=1.
  31. Joo, Ui-gyeong. 1992. “Dongribgongwong ‘Wonhyeong Hweson’ Yoogam” [The Regret Regarding the Damage of the Original State of the Independence Park]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], September 13. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1992091300209114011&editNo=3&printCount=1&publishDate=1992-09-13&officeId=00020&pageNo=14&printNo=21939&publishType=00010.
  32. Jung, Hyeon-yong. 2012. “Je Eulgul Chajeun Seodaemun Hyeongmoso” [Seodaemun Prison That Has Found Its Original ‘Face’]. Seoul Sinmun [Seoul Newspaper], March 27. http://go.seoul.co.kr/news/newsView.php?id=20120327016019.
  33. Kim, Da-in. 1992. “Dongribgongwong Chunyeomtap Gwangjang Taegeuk Moyang Museon Ddeuk Itna” [Is There Any Meaning Regarding the Ying-Yang Symbol in the Square of Patriotic Martyr Monument in the Independence Park?]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], September 9. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1992090900209215001&editNo=3&printCount=1&publishDate=1992-09-09&officeId=00020&pageNo=15&printNo=21938&publishType=00020.
  34. Kim, Gyeong-dal. 1998. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Talbaggum Sangsanghan Yeoksagyoyokjangsoro” [The Transformation of Seodaemun Prison to the Place for History Education]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], November 2. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1998110200209119008&editNo=45&printCount=1&publishDate=1998-11-02&officeId=00020&pageNo=19&printNo=24028&publishType=00010.
  35. Kim, Sam-ung. 2000. Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Geunhyeondaesa [The Modern and Contemporary History of Seodaemun Prison]. Seoul: Nanam.Google Scholar
  36. Kim, Sam-wung. 2011. “Haebanggonggangwa Seodaemun Hyeongmuso” [Space of Emancipation and Seodaemun Prison]. In The 12th Academic Symposium Proceeding: Minjok Haebanggwa Seodaemun Prison [National Liberation and Seodaemun Prison], 7–32. Seoul: Seodaemun Prison History Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Kopytoff, Igor. 1986. “The Cultural Biography of Things: Commoditization as Process.” In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, edited by Arjun Appadurai, 64–91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lee, Hyeon-goon. 2005. “Joseonsidae Hanseungbuui Hyeongseongaegyeonggwa Ipjijeok Teukseong” [A Study on the Forming Background of Hansungbu and Its Locational Characteristics]. Hangukdosijirihakeoji [The Geography Association of Korean Cities] 8 (1): 22–39.Google Scholar
  39. Lee, Hyun-hee. 2004. “Seodaemun Hyeongmusoeseoui Okjung Hangil Tujaenggwa Seonggwa” [An Anti-Japanese Struggle and a Result in Seo Dae Moon Prison]. Seoulhakyeongu [The Journal of Seoul Studies] 23: 227–266.Google Scholar
  40. Lee, In-woo. 1992. Sungukseonyeol Chunyeomtap Oneul Jemaksik [Unveiling Ceremony of Patriotic Martyrs Monument, Today]. Hangyeorye Sinmun [Hangyeorye Newspaper], November 17. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1992111700289113002&editNo=5&printCount=1&publishDate=1992-11-17&officeId=00028&pageNo=13&printNo=1395&publishType=00010.
  41. Lee, Ki-baik. 1984. A New History of Korea. Translated and edited by Edward W. Wagner and Edward J. Shultz. Cambridge, MA: The Harvard Yenching Institute and Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Lee, Seong-gi. 2008. “Seodaemun Dongribgongwon Jaejoseong Bongyeokhwa” [Regularisation of the Re-arrangement of Seodaemun Independence Park]. Seoul Gyeongje [Seoul Economy], August 10. http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=103&oid=011&aid=0001965175.
  43. Logan, William, and Keir Reeves. eds. 2008. Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with ‘Difficult Heritage’. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Lolitasari, Ade Triana, and Hee-jeong Yun. 2016. “Dark Tourism Gwangwangsaui Gwanramdongseon mit Gwanramhyeongtae” [Tourists’ Circulations and Behaviors in Dark Tourism Site: Focused on Seodaemun Prison History Hall]. Hangukcontentshakoenonmunji [Journal of the Korea Contents Association] 16 (9): 198–210.Google Scholar
  45. Ministry of Justice. 1988. Hanguk Gyojeongsa [Korean Reclamation History]. Seoul: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  46. Mok, Soo-hyun. 2010. “Daehan Jegukgiui Gukga Sangjing Jejeonggwa Gyeongungung” [Gyeongungung Palace and National Symbols of the Daehan Empire]. Seoulhakyeongu [The Journal of Seoul Studies] 40: 159–185.Google Scholar
  47. Moon, Chi-yeon. 1947. “Gwadogiui Suhyeongjaui Dongtae” [Prisoners’ Movement During the Transition Period]. Penal Administration 1 [Hyeongjeong 1]. Chihyeong Hyeopoe [Penal Administration Association].Google Scholar
  48. Moon, Young-ju. 2000. “Hanguk Geunhyeondaesaui Cheheom: Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yoeksagwanul Dolaboro” [The Experience of Korean Modern and Contemporary History: Visiting Seodaemun Prison History Hall]. Naeilul Yeonun Yeoksa [History to Open for Tomorrow] 3: 194–198.Google Scholar
  49. Moon, Jae-in. 2017. Unmyeong [Destiny]. Seoul: Bukbal.Google Scholar
  50. Nakahashi, Masaki. 1936. Joseon Sidaeui Hyeongbeol [The Punishment and Politics of the Joseon Dynasty]. Seoul: Joseon Chongdokbu Chihyeong Hyeobheoi.Google Scholar
  51. Noh, Ung-geun. 1989. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso ‘Donribgongwon’ Joseongchaekim Gang Deok-Gi Seoulsi Gukjang, ‘Yeolsaui Hyeonggeuk’ Yeoksajeok Gyohunuro” [Mr. Gang Deok-Gi Who Is in Charge of Constructing the Seodaemun Prison ‘Independence Park’, from ‘the Thrones of Patriotic Martyrs’ to the Historic Lesson]. The Kyunghyang Shinmun [The Kyunghyang Newspaper], March 1. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1989030100329204001&editNo=3&printCount=1&publishDate=1989-03-01&officeId=00032&pageNo=4&printNo=13363&publishType=00020.
  52. Nora, Pierre. 1989. “Between Memory and History: Les lieux de mémoire.” Representations 26: 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Noriko, Sato. 2011. “Paying a Visit to Seodaemun Prison History Hall.” Dongbuka Munhwa Yeongu [The Cultural Studies of the Northeast Asia] 27: 169–186.Google Scholar
  54. Olsen, Bjørnar. 2010. In Defense of Things: Archaeology and the Ontology of Objects. Lanham and Plymouth, UK: Rowman Altamira.Google Scholar
  55. Park, Yoon-seok. 1987. “‘Seonyeolui Pi’ Eolrukjin Yek Seodaemun Hyeongmuso ‘Geukil Ginyeomgwan’uro Wonhyeong Bojon Haja” [Let’s Preserve the Original State of the Former Seodaemun Prison Stained with ‘Blood of Patriotic Martyrs’ as a ‘Memorial Hall’]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], April 21. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1987042100209209001&editNo=2&printCount=1&publishDate=1987-04-21&officeId=00020&pageNo=9&printNo=20168&publishType=00020.
  56. Park, Yoon-seok. 1989. “Aeguk Seonyeol Saengsaenghan Jachuiga Yeogie…Seodaemun Donrimgongwon (5)” [Here Are Vivid Traces of Patriotic Martyrs … Seodaemun Independence Park (5)]. Donga Ilbo [Donga Daily], February 24. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1989022400209215001&editNo=2&printCount=1&publishDate=1989-02-24&officeId=00020&pageNo=15&printNo=20739&publishType=00020.
  57. Park, Mun-gyu. 1995. “Seodaemun ‘Dongribgwan’ Bokwon” [The Restoration of the Seodaemun Independence Hall]. The Kyunghyang Shinmun [The Kyunghyang Newspaper], February 25. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1995022500329120003&editNo=20&printCount=1&publishDate=1995-02-25&officeId=00032&pageNo=20&printNo=15351&publishType=00010.
  58. Park, Chung-hee. 2006. Hanguk Gukminege Goham [Park Chung-hee’s Addresses Dedicated to the Koreans]. Seoul: Dongseo Munhwasa [Dongseo Press].Google Scholar
  59. Park, Kyung-mok. 2008. “Daehan jegungmalgi iljeui gyeongseong gamong seolchiwa bongam bungamjeui sihaeng” [The Construction of Gyeongseong Prison and the Enforcement of the New System Called ‘Bongam’ and ‘Bungam’ During the Late Period of the Daehan Empire]. Hanguk Geunhyundaesa Yeongu [Journal of Korean Modern and Contemporary History] 46: 79–103.Google Scholar
  60. Park, Jong-il. 2012a. “Seodaemun Hyeongmoso Choicho Geonchuk Domyeondaero Bokwon” [The Restoration of Seodaemun Prison According to Its First Plan]. Asia Gyeongje [Asia Economy], March 22. http://www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2012032216200298506.
  61. Park, Jong-il. 2012b. “Seodaemungu, Gwangwangjawon Hongbo Naseonda” [Seodaemun-gu District Office, It Starts to Promote Its Tourism Resources]. Asia Gyongje [Asia Economy], April 18. http://www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2012041810535698823.
  62. Park, Kyeong-mok. 2015. “Ilje Gangjeomgi Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeongu” [The Study on Seodaemun Prison During Japanese Colonial Period]. Unpublished thesis, Ph.D., Chungnam University.Google Scholar
  63. Park, Hyo-jung, and Seung-hun Choi. 2006. “Pyeonghwawha Inguenui Nunuro Bonun Seodaemun Hyeongmuso” [Seodaemun Prison Seen from the View of Peace and Human Rights]. Chodeung Woori Gyoyuk [Elementary Our Education] 198: 116–125.Google Scholar
  64. Rhee, Young-hee, and Myeong-Soon Na. 1988. Seodaemun Hyeongmuso: Omgideon Nalui Girok Guerugo Yeoksa [The Seodaemun Prison: the record of its moving day and its history]. Seoul: Yeolhwadang. Google Scholar
  65. Ryu, Jae-hun. 1995. “Jibang sidae Munhwa Jiyeokin Sone Dalryodda” [The Era of the Local’s Self-Government Depends on Locals Who Care for Culture]. Hangyeorye Sinmun [Hangyeorye Newspaper], July 6. http://newslibrary.naver.com/viewer/index.nhn?articleId=1995070600289115001&editNo=5&printCount=1&publishDate=1995-07-06&officeId=00028&pageNo=15&printNo=2277&publishType=00010.
  66. Ryu, Eun-yeong. 2012. “Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Bonmoseup Deoichaja” [Seodaemun Prison Is Restored to Its Original State]. Simin ilbo [Simin Daily], March 22. http://www.siminilbo.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=294616.
  67. Seo, Jae-pil. 1896. “Saseol” [Leader]. Dongnip Sinmun [The Independent].Google Scholar
  68. Seodaemun-gu District Office. 2010. Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwan: Dongnimgwa Minjuui Hyeonjang [Seodaemun Prison History Hall: The Site of Independence and Democracy]. Seoul: Seodaemun Prison History Hall.Google Scholar
  69. Seodaemun-gu District Office. 2012. The Seodaemun Festival of Independence and Democracy [Brochure of an Event Held at Independence Park and the Seodaemun Prison History Hall], 15–16. Seoul: Seodaemun-gu District Office.Google Scholar
  70. Seodaemun Prison History Hall. 2010. “The Leaflet of Seodaemun Prison History Hall.” Seoul: Seodaemun-gu District Office. Accessed November 10, 2012. http://www.sscmc.or.kr/newhistory/history_data/leaflet.asp.
  71. Seodaemun Prison History Hall. ed. 2011. The 12th Academic Symposium Proceeding: Minjok Haebanggwa Seodaemun Prison [National Liberation and Seodaemun Prison]. Seoul: Seodaemun Prison History Hall.Google Scholar
  72. Seodaemun Prison History Hall. ed. 2012. The 13th Academic Symposium Proceeding: Rhee Syngman Jipgwongiui Seodaemun Hyeongmuso [Seodaemun Prison During Rhee Syngman Regime]. Seoul: Seodaemun Prison History Hall.Google Scholar
  73. Seodaemun Prison History Hall. ed. 2014. The 16th Academic Symposium Proceeding: Dongasia Geundae Gamokui Gachibalgulgwa Bigyoyeongu [The Investigation of the Value of Modern Prisons in East Asia and Their Comparative Studies]. Seoul: Seodaemun Prison History Hall.Google Scholar
  74. Seodaemun Prison History Hall. ed. 2015. The 17th Academic Symposium Proceeding: Segyeyusanui Gachiro Bon Seodaemun Hyeongmusowa Yeosungamok [Seodaemun Prison and Lushun Russo-Japanese Prison as the Value of the World Heritage Site]. Seoul: Seodaemun Prison History Hall.Google Scholar
  75. Seoul Geographical Dictionary. 2009. “Geungye-Dong” [Geungye-Dong]. Seoul Current Affair Compilation Committee. Accessed November 30, 2013. http://culture.seoul.go.kr/sggDic/sggDic.do?_method=init.
  76. Shim, Ji-yeon. 1994. Heo Heon Yeongu [The Study on Heo Heon]. Seoul: Yeoksabipyeongsa [Critical Review of History].Google Scholar
  77. Shin, Gi-wook, and Michael Robinson. eds. 1999. “Introduction.” In Colonial Modernity in Korea, 1–20. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Asia Centre.Google Scholar
  78. Son, Young-jin. 2012. “Park Gyeong-Mok Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwanjang ‘Seodaemun Yeoksagwan Jayuwa Pyeonghwaui Landmark Mandeul Geot’” [Park Gyeong-Mok (The Director of the Seodaemun Prison History Hall) ‘We Will Make the Seodaemun Prison History Hall the Landmark of Freedom and Peace’]. Financial News, March 1. http://www.fnnews.com/news/201203011648168963.
  79. Sørensen, Marie Louise Stig, and Dacia Viejo-Rose. eds. 2015. War and Cultural Heritage: Biographies of Place. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  80. The Association of Korean History Teachers (TAKHT). 2005. Korea Through the Ages vol. 2: Modern. Seongnam: The Academy of Korean Studies.Google Scholar
  81. The Korean Natural Environment Institute [Hangukjayeonhwangyeongyeonguso]. 2009. Seodaemun Hyeongmuso (Gu Seoul Guchiso) Bojon mit Hwaryonggyehoek [The Conservation and the Application Plan of Seodaemun Prison (Former Seoul Detention Center)]. Seoul: Seodaemun-gu District Office.Google Scholar
  82. The Peace Research Institute. 2008. “Sikminji Eupabgwa Han Seorin Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwan” [The Seodaemun Prison History Hall of Japanese Repression and Han]. Tongil Hanguk [The Reunified Korea] 26 (8): 104–105.Google Scholar
  83. Viejo-Rose, Dacia. 2011. Reconstructing Spain: Cultural Heritage and Memory After Civil War. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.Google Scholar
  84. Yang, Byung-il. 2006. “Seodaemun hyeongmusoui sangjing ikgi” [Reading Symbol in Meanings of Seodaemun Prison]. Sahoegyoyukak [Social Studies Education] 45 (4): 59–82.Google Scholar
  85. Yoo, Yeong-dae. 2012. “Ilbon gidogindeul ‘tejosangdeul manhaeng bukkeureopseumnida’ nunmul geulsseongimyeo sajoeui gidohoe” [We Are Ashamed of What Our Ancestors Did…The Prayer Meeting for the Repentance with 10 Japanese Christians in Seodaemun Prison]. Kukmin ilbo [Kukmin Daily], April 19. http://news.kmib.co.kr/article/view.asp?arcid=0006008892&code=61221111.
  86. Yoon, Sun-young. 1999. “Jibangjachidancheui GwangwangsangpumgaebalSeonggongsaryeyeongu: Seodaemun Hyeongmuso Yeoksagwaneul Jungsimeuro” [A Study on the Determinants of Success in the Tourism Product Development of the Local Government: A Case Study of the Seodaemun Prison Historical Annex]. Gwangwang Gyeongyeong Yeongu [The Journal of Tourism Management] 3 (2): 219–241.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun Kyung Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences, and Humanities (CRASSH)University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.The Graduate School of International Studies (GSIS)Seoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations