The Roots and Development of Juvenile Justice: An International Overview

Chapter
Part of the World Histories of Crime, Culture and Violence book series (WHCCV)

Abstract

This chapter sets the general background and presents the roots, birth and evolution of juvenile justice, starting in the nineteenth century and continuing up to the first part of the twenty-first century. It shows how the justice system moved from a punishment orientation to one in which welfare considerations were dominant, insofar as children are concerned, during the period (1815–1950). An account is then provided of the three decades starting with the 1960s, which can be viewed as a period of transformations during which some countries emphasised the welfare model and others questioned it. Finally, the debates and changes of the last quarter-century, which led some important countries—but not all—to weaken the boundaries separating juvenile justice from adult criminal justice, are evoked.

References

  1. Albrecht, Hans-Jörg. 2004. Youth justice in Germany. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 443–493. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Asquith, Stewart. 1983. Children and justice: Decision-making in children’s hearings and juvenile courts. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Association Internationale des Magistrats de la Jeunesse et de la Famille. 1994. Jeunes délinquants et jeunes en danger en milieu ouvert: cadres légaux et nouvelles pratiques, approche comparative. Toulouse: Éditions Érès.Google Scholar
  4. Aubusson de Cavarlay, Bruno. 1999. France 1998: la justice des mineurs bousculée. Criminologie 32 (2): 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailleau, Francis. 2007. Un temps de transition? Les évolutions de la justice pénale des mineurs en France. In La justice pénale des mineurs en Europe: entre modèle Welfare et inflexions néo-libérales, ed. Francis Bailleau and Yves Cartuyvels, 99–118. Paris: L’Harrmattan.Google Scholar
  6. Bailleau, Francis, and Yves Cartuyvels (eds.). 2002. Special issue on juvenile justice in Europe. Déviance et société 26 (3).Google Scholar
  7. Bazemore, Gordon, and Lode Walgrave. 1999. Restorative justice and the international juvenile justice crisis. In Restorative juvenile justice: Repairing the harm of youth crime, ed. Gordon Bazemore and Lode Walgrave, 1–13. Monsey, NY: Willow Tree Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bentley, David. 1998. English criminal justice in the nineteenth century. London: The Hambledon Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bishop, Donna M., and Scott H. Decker. 2006. Punishment and Control: Juvenile Justice Reform in the USA. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 3–35. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Bottoms, Anthony E. 1974. On the decriminalization of the English juvenile court. In Crime, criminology and public policy, ed. Roger Hood, 319–345. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  11. Bottoms, Anthony E., and James Dignan. 2004. Youth justice in Great Britain. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 21–183. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, Sarah Alice. 2015. Trends in juvenile justice state legislation 2011–2015. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.Google Scholar
  13. Bruckmüller, Karin. 2006. Austria: A protection model. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 263–294. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Burman, Michele, Paul Bradshaw, Neil Hutton, Fergus McNeill, and Mary Munro. 2006. The end of an era? Youth justice in Scotland. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 439–471. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Clapp, Elizabeth J. 1998. Mothers of all children: Women reformers and the rise of juvenile courts in progressive era America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cox, Pamela. 2003. Gender, justice and welfare: Bad girls in Britain, 1900–1950. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Da Agra, Candido, and Josefina Castro. 2002. La justice des mineurs: l’expérience portugaise. Déviance et société 26 (3): 355–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dekker, Jeroen J.H. 2010. Educational ambitions in history: Childhood and education in an expanding educational space from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  19. Dekker, Jeroen J.H. 2016. A belief in magic. Professionalization in post Second World War forced Child Protection. In Educational Research: Discourses of Change and Changes of Discourse, Educational Research 9, ed. Marc Depaepe and Paul Smeyers. 189–206. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Springer eBooks).Google Scholar
  20. Dessertine, Dominique, and Bernard Maradan. 1991. Pratiques judiciaires de l’Assistance éducative (1889–1941). Lyon: Centre Pierre Léon, Université Lumière Lyon 2.Google Scholar
  21. Dickinson, Edward Ross. 1996. The politics of German child welfare from the empire to the Federal Republic. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Donzelot, Jacques. 2005. La police des familles, 2nd ed. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.Google Scholar
  23. Doob, Anthony N., and Jane B. Sprott. 2004. Youth justice in Canada. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 185–242. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dünkel, Frieder. 2006. Juvenile justice in Germany: Between welfare and justice. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 225–262. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Dupont-Bouchat, Marie-Sylvie, and Éric Pierre (eds.) with Jean-Marie Fecteau, Jean Trépanier, Jacques-Guy Petit, Bernard Schnapper, Jeroen J.H. Dekker, with the collaboration of Sylvie Ménard, and Véronique Strimelle. 2001. Enfance et justice au XIXesiècle. Essais d’histoire comparée de la protection de l’enfance, 1820–1914, France, Belgique, Pays-Bas, Canada. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  26. Dupont-Bouchat, Marie-Sylvie, with the collaboration of Fabienne Alexandre, and Véronique Strimelle. 1996. De la prison à l’école: les pénitenciers pour enfants en Belgique au XIXe siècle (1840–1914). Kortrijk-Heule: UGA.Google Scholar
  27. Empey, Lamar T., Mark C. Stafford, and Carter H. Hay. 1999. American delinquency: Its meaning and construction, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  28. Fecteau, Jean-Marie, Sylvie Ménard, Jean Trépanier, and Véronique Strimelle. 1998. Une politique de l’enfance délinquante et en danger: la mise en place des écoles de réforme et d’industrie au Québec (1840–1873). Crime, Histoire et Sociétés /Crime, History and Societies 2 (1): 75–110.Google Scholar
  29. Feld, Barry C. 2000. Legislative exclusion of offenses from juvenile court jurisdiction: A history and critique. In The changing borders of juvenile justice: Transfer of adolescents to the criminal court, ed. Jeffrey Fagan and Franklin E. Zimring, 83–144. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fenwick, Mark. 2006. Japan: From child protection to penal populism. In Comparative youth justice: Critical issues, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 146–158. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Fishman, Sarah. 2002. The battle for children: World War II, youth crime and juvenile justice in twentieth-century France. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Fox, Sanford J. 1970. Juvenile justice reform: An historical perspective. Stanford Law Review 22: 1187–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fox, Sanford J. 1998. A contribution to the history of the American juvenile court. Juvenile and Family Court Journal 49 (4): 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garland, David. 2001. The culture of control: Crime and social order in contemporary society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gendrot, Sophie. 2006. France: The politicization of youth justice. In Comparative youth justice: Critical issues, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 48–64. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  36. Gersãon, Eliana. 1992. Le droit des mineurs au Portugal. In Droit pénal européen des mineurs, 227–234. Aix-en-Provence: Presses Universitaires d’Aix-Marseille.Google Scholar
  37. Godfrey, Barry, and Paul Lawrence. 2005. Crime and justice, 1750–1950. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  38. Great Britain, Home Office. 1927. Report of the Departmental Committee on the Treatment of Young Offenders. Cmnd 2831. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  39. Hagan, John, and Jeffrey Leon. 1977. Rediscovering delinquency: Social history, political ideology and the sociology of law. American Sociological Review 42 (4): 587–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haines, Kevin, and David O’Mahony. 2006. Restorative approaches, young people and youth justice. In Youth crime and justice, ed. Barry Goldson and John Muncie, 110–125. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Hogeveen, Brian. 2001. ‘Winning deviant youth over by friendly helpfulness’: Transformations in the legal governance of deviant children in Canada, 1857–1908. In Youth justice: History, legislation and reform, ed. Russell C. Smandych, 43–63. Toronto: Harcourt Canada.Google Scholar
  42. Hopkins Burke, Roger. 2008. Young people, crime and justice. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Irti, Verda. 2014. Être juge de tribunal pour enfants en Turquie. Entre répression pénale et considérations sociales. Ethnologie française 44 (2): 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Janson, Carl-Gunnar. 2004. Youth justice in Sweden. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 391–441. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Junger-Tas, Josine. 2006. Trends in international juvenile justice: What conclusions can be drawn? In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 505–532. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Junger-Tas, Josine, and Scott H. Decker. 2006. International handbook of juvenile justice. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kashefi Esmaeil Zadeh, Hassan. 2005. La protection des mineurs au sein du Conseil de l’Europe. Thèse de doctorat en droit, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne—Paris I.Google Scholar
  48. Knupfer, Anne Meis. 2001. Reform and resistance: Gender, delinquency and America’s first juvenile court. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Kotrane, Hatem, and Ridha Khemakhem. 2004. Le code de la protection de l’enfant, version annotée. Tunis: Ministère des Affaires de la Femme, de la Famille et de l’Enfance and UNICEF.Google Scholar
  50. Krisberg, Barry. 2006. Rediscovering the juvenile justice ideal in the United States. In Comparative youth justice: Critical issues, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 6–18. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Kumari, Ved. 2010. The juvenile justice system in India: From welfare to rights, 2nd ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kyvsgaard, Britta. 2004. Youth justice in Denmark. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 349–390. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laberge, Danielle. 1997. Marginaux et marginalité: Les États-Unis aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  54. Leon, Jeffrey S. 1977. New and old themes in Canadian juvenile justice: The origins of delinquency legislation and the prospects for recognition of children’s rights. Inter-change 8: 151–175.Google Scholar
  55. Lipton, D., R. Martinson, and J. Wilks. 1975. The effectiveness of correctional treatment: A survey of treatment evaluation studies. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  56. Martinson, R. 1974. What works? Questions and answers about prison reform. The Public Interest 35: 22–54.Google Scholar
  57. May, Margaret. 1973. Innocence and experience: The evolution of the concept of juvenile delinquency in the mid-nineteenth century. Victorian Studies 17 (1): 9–29. Reprint in Eric H. Monkkonen (ed.). 1991. Crime and justice in American history, vol. 3. Delinquency and disorderly behavior, 46–68. Westport: Meckler Publishing.Google Scholar
  58. McAra, Lesley. 2006. Welfare in crisis? Key developments in Scottish youth justice. In Comparative youth justice, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 127–145. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. McCarney, Willie (ed.). 1996. Juvenile delinquents and young people in danger in an open environment. Winchester: Waterside Press.Google Scholar
  60. McGowen, R. 1983. The image of justice and reform of the criminal law in early nineteenth-century England. Buffalo Law Review 32: 89–125.Google Scholar
  61. Mennel, Robert M. 1983. Attitudes and policies toward juvenile delinquency in the United States: A historiographical review. In Crime and justice: An annual review of research, ed. Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, 191–224. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Morgan, Rod, and Tim Newburn. 2007. Youth justice. In The Oxford handbook of criminology, ed. Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan, and Robert Reiner, 1024–1060. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Morris, Allison. 2004. Youth justice in New Zealand. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 243–292. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  64. Muncie, John. 2004. Youth and crime, 2nd ed. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Muncie, John, and Barry Goldson. 2006a. England and Wales: The new correctionalism. In Comparative youth justice, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 34–47. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  66. Muncie, John, and Barry Goldson. 2006b. States of transition: Convergence and diversity in international youth justice. In Comparative youth justice, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 196–218. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  67. Myers, Tamara. 2006. Caught: Montreal’s modern girls and the law, 1869–1945. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  68. Niget, David. 2009. La naissance du tribunal pour enfants; une comparaison France-Québec (1912–1945). Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes.Google Scholar
  69. Niget, David. 2015. Entre protection et droits. Le rôle de l’Association internationale des juges pour enfants dans l’internationalisation des modèles de justice des mineurs. In Droits des enfants au XXe siècle. Pour une histoire transnationale, ed. Yves Denéchère and David Niget, 53–62. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.Google Scholar
  70. Nyquist, Ola. 1960. Juvenile justice. London: Macmillan (Cambridge studies in criminology, vol. 12).Google Scholar
  71. Odem, Mary E. 1995. Delinquent daughters. Protecting and policing adolescent female sexuality in the United States, 1885–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  72. Papathéodorou, Théodore. 2007. Justice pénale des mineurs en Grèce: la persistance du modèle protectionnel et l’ouverture vers le modèle de justice restorative. In La justice pénale des mineurs en Europe: entre modèle Welfare et inflexions néo-libérales, ed. Francis Bailleau and Yves Cartuyvels, 247–260. Paris: L’Harrmattan.Google Scholar
  73. Petit, Jacques-Guy. 1990. Ces peines obscures: la prison pénale en France, 1780–1875. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  74. Pinchbeck, Ivy, and Margaret Hewitt. 1973. Children in English society, vol. 2. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  75. Platek, Monika. 2007. Présentation du système de la justice des mineurs en Pologne. In La justice pénale des mineurs en Europe: entre modèle Welfare et inflexions néo-libérales, ed. Francis Bailleau and Yves Cartuyvels, 155–173. Paris: L’Harrmattan.Google Scholar
  76. Platt, Anthony M. 2009. The child savers: The invention of delinquency, 3rd ed. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Priestley, Philip, Denise Fears, and Roger Fuller. 1977. Justice for juveniles; The 1969 Children and Young Persons Act: A case for reform? London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  78. Quevillon, Lucie, and Jean Trépanier. 2004. Thémis et la psyché: les spécialistes de la psychiatrie et de la psychologie à la Cour des jeunes délinquants de Montréal, 1912–1950. Le temps de l’histoire 6: 187–217.Google Scholar
  79. Radzinowicz, Leon, and Roger Hood. 1986. A history of English criminal law and its administration from 1750, vol. 5. The emergence of penal policy. London: Stevens and Sons.Google Scholar
  80. Rechea Alberola, Cristina, and Esther Fernandez Molina. 2006. Continuity and change in the Spanish juvenile justice system. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 325–348. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Robert, Philippe. 1969. Traité de droit des mineurs. Paris: Éditions Cujas.Google Scholar
  82. Roberts, Julian V. 2004. Public opinion and youth justice. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 495–542. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rodrigues, Anabela Miranda. 1999. Le droit des mineurs au Portugal: une réforme urgente. Criminologie 32 (2): 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rodrigues, Anabela Miranda. 2004. La responsabilité des mineurs délinquants dans l’ordre juridique portugais. Revue internationale de droit pénal 75 (1): 461–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rosenheim, Margaret K., Franklin E. Zimring, David S. Tanenhaus, and Bernardine Dohrn (eds.). 2002. A century of juvenile justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  86. Sarnecki, Jerzy, and Felipe Estrada. 2006. Keeping the balance between humanism and penal punitivism: Recent trends in juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice in Sweden. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 473–503. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  87. Schichor, David. 1983. Historical and current trends in American juvenile justice. Juvenile and Family Court Journal 34 (3): 61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schlossman, Steven L. 1977. Love and the American delinquent: The theory and practice of ‘progressive’ juvenile justice, 1825–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  89. Schlossman, Steven L. 1995. Delinquent children: The juvenile reform school. In The Oxford history of the prison: The practice of punishment in western society, ed. Norval Morris and David J. Rothman, 363–389. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Schur, Edwin M. 1973. Radical nonintervention: Rethinking the delinquency problem. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  91. Seymour, John. 1988. Dealing with young offenders. North Ride, NSW: The Law Book Co.Google Scholar
  92. Shore, Heather. 2003. ‘Inventing’ the juvenile delinquent in nineteenth century Europe. In Comparative histories of crime, ed. Barry Godfrey, Clive Emsley, and Graeme Dunstall, 110–124. Collumpton, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  93. Shore, Heather with Pamela Cox. 2002. Re-inventing the juvenile delinquent in Britain and Europe 1650–1950. In Becoming delinquent: British and European youth, 1650–1950, ed. Pamela Cox and Heather Shore, 1–22. Aldershot: Ashgate Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  94. Smandych, Russell. 2006. Canada: Repenalization and young offenders’ rights. In Comparative youth justice, ed. John Muncie and Barry Goldson, 19–33. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  95. Snyder, Howard N., and Melissa Sickmund. 2006. Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 National Report. Washington: National Center for Juvenile Justice. http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2006/index.html.
  96. Stando-Kawecka, Barbara. 2006. Continuity in the welfare approach: Juvenile justice in Poland. In International handbook of juvenile justice, ed. Josine Junger-Tas and Scott H. Decker, 351–376. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  97. Sutton, John R. 1988. Stubborn children: Controlling delinquency in the United States, 1640–1981. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  98. Tanenhaus, David S. 2004. Juvenile justice in the making. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Tinoco Pastrana, Angel. 2011. Le système de responsabilité pénale des mineurs en Espagne. In La justice des mineurs en Europe: une question de spécialité?, ed. Yann Favier and Frédérique Ferrand, 101–113. Berne: Stämpfli Editions, Intersentia.Google Scholar
  100. Tonry, Michael, and Anthony M. Doob (eds.). 2004. Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  101. Torbet, Patricia, Richard Gable, Hunter Hurst IV, Imogene Montgomery, Linda Szymanski, and Douglas Thomas. 1996. State responses to serious and violent juvenile crime. Pittsburgh: National Center for Juvenile Justice.Google Scholar
  102. Trépanier, Jean. 1988. Changement de cap pour la justice des mineurs: le cas d’un État américain. Revue de droit pénal et de criminologie 78 (5): 491–510.Google Scholar
  103. Trépanier, Jean. 2000. Protéger pour prévenir la délinquance: l’émergence de la Loi sur les jeunes délinquants de 1908 et sa mise en application. In L’évolution de la protection de l’enfance au Québec des origines à nos jours, ed. Renée Joyal, 49–95. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l’Université du Québec.Google Scholar
  104. Trépanier, Jean. 2004. What did Quebec not want? Opposition to the adoption of the Youth Criminal Justice Act in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 46 (3): 276–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Trépanier, Jean. 2005. Les transformations du régime canadien visant les jeunes contrevenants: les frontières de la justice des mineurs en mutation. Revue de droit pénal et de criminologie 85 (6): 559–602.Google Scholar
  106. Trépanier, Jean. 2007. Children’s rights in juvenile justice: A historical glance. In The UN Children’s Rights Convention: Theory meets practice, ed. A. Alen et al. 509–529. Antwerpen: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  107. Trépanier, Jean. 2008. Un regard historique sur les droits des mineurs traduits en justice. In Droits de l’enfant / Rights of the child, ed. Tara Collins, Rachel Grondin, Veronica Pinero, Marie Pratte, and Marie-Claude Roberge, 15–41. Montreal: Wilson et Lafleur.Google Scholar
  108. Trépanier, Jean, and Françoise Tulkens. 1995. Délinquance et protection de la jeunesse: aux sources des lois belge et canadienne sur l’enfance. Brussels: DeBoeck Université.Google Scholar
  109. Tulkens, Françoise, and Thierry Moreau. 2000. Droit de la jeunesse: Aide, assistance, protection. Brussels: De Boeck et Larcier.Google Scholar
  110. United States, President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. 1967. The challenge of crime in a free society. Katzenback Report. Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  111. van den Haag, Ernest. 1975. Punishing criminals: Concerning a very old and painful question. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  112. Ventrell, Marvin. 1998. Evolution of the dependency component of the juvenile court. Juvenile and Family Court Journal 49 (4): 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Walgrave, Lode. 1994. Beyond rehabilitation: In search of a constructive alternative in the judicial response to juvenile crime. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 2 (2): 57–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Walgrave, Lode. 1998. What is at stake in restorative justice for juveniles. In Restorative justice for juveniles: Potentialities, risks and problems, ed. Lode Walgrave, 11–16. Leuven: Leuven University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Walgrave, Lode. 2004. Restoration in youth justice. In Youth crime and youth justice: Comparative and cross-national perspectives, ed. Michael Tonry and Anthony N. Doob, 543–597. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilson, James Q. 1975. Thinking about crime. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  117. Winterdyk, John A. (ed.). 1997. Juvenile justice systems: International perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  118. Winterdyk, John A. (ed.). 2002. Juvenile justice systems: International perspectives, 2nd ed. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  119. Wolcott, David B. 2005. Cops and kids: Policing juvenile delinquency in Urban America, 1890–1940. Columbus: Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  120. Wössner, Gunda, Carolin Quenzer, and David Vig. 2011. The development of criminal law in Germany with an emphasis on sexual and juvenile offenses. In Punitivity, international developments, vol. 1: Punitiveness, a global phenomenon?, ed. Helmut Kury and Evelyn Shea, 375–393. Bochum: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer.Google Scholar
  121. Yokoyama, Minoru. 1997. Juvenile justice: An overview of Japan. In Juvenile justice systems: International perspectives, ed. John A. Winterdyk, 1–28. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  122. Yoshinaka, Nobuhito. 1997. Historical analysis of the juvenile justice system in Japan. Hiroshima Hogaku 20 (3): 292–302.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre International de Criminologie ComparéeUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations