Advertisement

The Two Rice Deltas of Vietnam: A Century of Failure and Success

  • Montserrat López Jerez
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Economic History book series (PEHS)

Abstract

This chapter provides a historical institutional perspective to the understanding of the remarkable economic transformation of Vietnam since the 1980s. The literature normally credits this success to the liberalization reform known as Doi Moi, while the disparity in economic performance between the two rice bowls of the country is commonly attributed to their historical differences. The chapter examines the institutional factors, mainly land tenure conditions and size distribution of landholdings, and their transformation prior to Doi Moi as to provide a potential explanation of the success and identify the constraints experienced by farmers over the last century.

Keywords

Vietnamese agriculture Vietnam economic development Agriculture and industrialisation Agricultural development in Vietnam 

References

  1. Adelman, I. (1984). Beyond Export-Led Growth. World Development, 12(9), 937–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adelman, I. (1986). A Poverty-Focused Approach to Development Policy. In J. J. P. Lewis & V. Kallab (Eds.), Development Strategies Reconsidered (pp. 11–34). Washington, DC: Overseas Development Council.Google Scholar
  3. Andersson, M., & Gunnarsson, C. (2003). Development and Structural Change in Asia-Pacific: Globalising Miracles or the End of a Model? London: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
  4. Benjamin, D., & Brandt, L. (2004). Agriculture and Income Distribution in Rural Vietnam under Economic Reforms: A Tale Of Two Regions. In P. Glewwe, N. Agrawal, & D. Dollar (Eds.), Economic Growth, Poverty and Household Welfare in Vietnam (pp. 133–186). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  5. Beresford, M. (1985). Agriculture in the Transition to Socialism: The Case of South Vietnam. In M. Lundahl (Ed.), The Primary Sector in Economic Development (pp. 370–395). Sydney: Croom Helm Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. Binswanger, H. P., & Elgin, M. (1984). Reflections on Land Reform and Farm Size. In C. K. Eicher & J. M. Staatz (Eds.), International Agricultural Development (3rd ed., pp. 316–328). London: The John Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  7. Birdsall, N., & Londono, J. L. (1997). Asset Inequality Matters: An Assessment of the World Bank’s Approach to Poverty Reduction. The American Review, 87(2), 32–37.Google Scholar
  8. Booth, A. (1999). Initial Conditions and Miraculous Growth: Why is South East Asia Different from Taiwan and South Korea? World Development, 27(2), 301–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Booth, A., & Sundrum, R. M. (1984). Labor Absorption in Agriculture: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Investigation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Boserup, E. (1965). The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change Under Population Pressure. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
  11. Bredo, W. (1970). Agrarian Reform in Vietnam: Vietcong and Government of Vietnam Strategies in Conflict. Asian Survey, 10(8), 738–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Callison, C. S. (1974). The Land-to-the-tiller Program. Athens, OH: Ohio University, Centre for International Studies.Google Scholar
  13. Carter, M. R. (2000). Land Ownership Inequality and the Income Distribution Consequences of Economic Growth. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.Google Scholar
  14. Chayanov, A. V. (1966). The Theory of Peasant Economy. In D. Thorner, B. Kerblay, & R.E.F Smith. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin, INC (First published in 1923).Google Scholar
  15. Deininger, K., & Jin, S. (2003). Land Sales and Rental Markets in Transition—Evidence from Rural Viet Nam. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3013.Google Scholar
  16. Duong, P. B., & Izumida, Y. (2002). Landholdings and Household Income in the Vietnamese Villages. Japanese Journal of Farm Management, 40(2), 23–37.Google Scholar
  17. Eicher, C. K. (1969). The Subsistence Farmer in Traditional Economies. In C. R. Wharton (Ed.), Subsistence Agriculture and Economic Development (pp. 227–228). Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  18. Elvin, M. (1973). The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpretation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fall, B. B. (1967). The Two Viet-Nams: A Political and Military Analysis (3rd ed.). London: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. FAO. (2008). Trends in Land 2008. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/trends2008/land.pdf
  21. Glewwe, P., Gragnolatti, M., & Zaman, H. (2000). Who Gained from Vietnam’s Boom in the 1990s? An Analysis of Poverty and Inequality Trends. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2275Google Scholar
  22. Gourou, P. (1945). The Standard of Living in the Delta of the Tonkin: (French Indo-China). New York: Institute of Pacific Relations.Google Scholar
  23. Hayami, Y. (1994). Strategies for the Reform of Land Policy Relations. In R. Baker (Ed.), Agricultural Policy Analysis for Transition to a Market-Oriented Economy in Viet Nam. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, no. 123Google Scholar
  24. Hayami, Y. (2001). Ecology, History, and Development: A Perspective from Rural Southeast Asia. The World Bank Research Observer, 16(2), 169–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hickey, G. C. (1964/1967). Village in Vietnam. Massachusetts: Yale University Press. 6th Print.Google Scholar
  26. Huang, P. C. (1990). The Peasant Family and Rural Development in the Yangzi Delta, 1350–1988. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Johnston, B. F., & Kilby, P. (1975). Agriculture and Structural Transformation: Economic Strategies in Late Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kerkvliet, B. J. T., & Selden, M. (1998). Agrarian Transformation in China and Vietnam. The China Journal, 40, 37–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kolko, G. (1997). Vietnam: Anatomy of a Peace. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Larsen, M. R. (1965). Agricultural Economy of North Vietnam. US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.Google Scholar
  31. Le, T.C. & Rambo, A.T. (1993). Too Many People, Too Little Land: The Human Ecology of a Wet Rice-Growing Village in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. Occasional Paper No. 15, East-West Center Honolulu.Google Scholar
  32. Logan, W. J. C. (1971). How Deep is the Green Revolution in South Vietnam?: The Story of the Agricultural Turn-Around in South Vietnam. Asian Survey, 11(4), 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. López Jerez, M. (2014). Deltas Apart—Factor Endowments, Colonial Extraction and Pathways of Agricultural Development in Vietnam. Lund Studies in Economic History (69) (PhD).Google Scholar
  34. López Jerez, M. (forthcoming). Factor Endowments and Two Stylised Dynamics of Growth Without Development. Under Revision.Google Scholar
  35. Markussen, T. (2017). Land Issues 2006–14: Property Rights and Investment. In F. Tarp (Ed.), Growth, Structural Transformation, and Rural Change in Viet Nam: A Rising Dragon on the Move (pp. 117–138). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McCaig, B., Benjamin, D., & Brandt, L. (2009). The Evolution of Income Inequality in Vietnam, 1993–2006. Mimeo: Australian National University and University.Google Scholar
  37. Myint, H. (1958). The “Classical Theory” of International Trade and the Underdeveloped Countries. The Economic Journal, 68(270), 317–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Phan, D., & Coxhead, I. (2010). Inter-Provincial Migration and Inequality During Vietnam’s Transition. Journal of Development Economics, 91, 100–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pingali, P. L., & Xuan, V. T. (1992). Vietnam: Decollectivization and Rice Productivity Growth. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 40(4), 697–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prosterman, R. L. (1970). Land-to-the-Tiller in South Vietnam: The Tables Turn. Asian Survey, 10(8), 751–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rambo, A. T., Cuc, L. T., & Gillogly, K. (1993). Nguyen Xa Village and its Agroecosystem. In T. C. Le & A. T. Rambo (Eds.), Too Many People, Too Little Land: The Human Ecology of a Wet Rice-Growing Village in the Red River Delta of Vietnam (pp. 11–31). Honolulu: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  42. Ravallion, M., & van de Walle, D. (2006). Does Rising Landlessness Signal Success or Failure for Vietnam’s Agrarian Transformation? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.Google Scholar
  43. Ravallion, M., & van de Walle, D. (2008). Land in Transition: Reform and Poverty in Rural Vietnam. Washington: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Salter, M. (1970). The Broadening Base of Land Reform in South Vietnam. Asian Survey, 10(8), 724–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sansom, R. L. (1970). The Economics of Insurgency in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  46. SRI. (1968). Land reform in Vietnam. Menlo Park, CA: Stanford Research Institute.Google Scholar
  47. Timmer, C. P. (2009). A World Without Agriculture: The Structural Transformation in Historical Perspective. Washington, DC: AEI Press.Google Scholar
  48. Tran, T. S., Chien, N. V., Thoa, V. T. K., Dobermann, A., & Witt, C. (2004). Site-Specific Nutrient Management in Irrigited Rice Systems of the Red River Delta of Vietnam. In A. Dobermann, C. Witt, & D. Dawe (Eds.), Increasing Productivity of Intensive Rice Systems Through Site-Specific Nutrient Management (pp. 217–242). Manila: IRRI.Google Scholar
  49. USAID. (1975). US Economic Assitance to South Vietnam (Vol. 1 and 2). Washington, DC: USAID.Google Scholar
  50. White, C. P. (1970). Land Reform in North Vietnam. Washington, DC: Agency for International Development.Google Scholar
  51. Wiegersma, N. (1988). Vietnam: Peasant Land, Peasant Revolution: Patriarchy and Collectivity in the Rural Economy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. World Bank, Vietnam. (1998). Vietnam—Advancing Rural Development for Vision to Action. Working Paper 18628.Google Scholar
  53. Young, K. B., Wailes, E., Cramer, G., & Khiem, N. T. (2002). Vietnam’s Rice Economy: Developments and Prospects. Research Report 968, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Montserrat López Jerez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economic HistoryLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations