Advertisement

Other Proctitides

  • Giovanna DasilvaEmail author
  • Radhika Smith
Chapter

Abstract

Proctitis, or inflammation of the rectum, can come from a myriad of causes including infection, exposure to radiation, proximal diversion of the fecal stream, medications and idiopathic conditions. Symptoms typically include blood per rectum, tenesmus, and diarrhea, and like all other pathologies treated by a colorectal surgeon, the evaluation and management requires a thorough history and a complete physical with a full endoscopic exam when appropriate.

Keywords

Proctitis Diversion proctitis Radiation proctitis Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome 

References

  1. 1.
    Bartlett JG. Clinical practice. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:334–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Denève C, Janoir C, Poilane I, Fantinato C, Collignon A. New trends in Clostridium difficile virulence and pathogenesis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33(suppl 1):S24–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lesperance K, Causey MW, Spencer M, Steele SR. The morbidity of Clostridium difficile infection following elective colonic resection: results from a national population database. Am J Surg. 2011;201:141–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schwaber MJ, Simhon A, Block C. et.al. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile carriage and C. difficile–associated disease on the adult wards of an urban tertiary care hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klipfel AA, Schein M, Fahoum B, Wise L. Acute abdomen and Clostridium difficile colitis: still a lethal combination. Dig Surg. 2000;17:160–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gerding DN, Olson MM, Peterson LR, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis in adults: a prospective case-controlled epidemiologic study. Arch Intern Med. 1986;146:95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burkart NE, Kwaan MR, Shepela C, et al. Indications and relative utility of lower endoscopy in the management of Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:626582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miller M. The fascination with probiotics for Clostridium difficile infection: lack of evidence for prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy. Anaerobe. 2009;15:281–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guarino A, Lo Vecchio A, Canani RB. Probiotics as prevention and treatment for diarrhea. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009;25:18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnston BC, Ma SS, Goldenberg JZ, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:878–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldenberg JZ, Ma SS, Saxton JD, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD006095.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neal MD, Alverdy JC, Hall DE, Simmons RL, Zuckerbraun BS. Diverting loop ileostomy and colonic lavage: an alternative to total abdominal colectomy for the treatment of severe, complicated Clostridium difficile associated disease. Ann Surg. 2011;254:423–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guo B, Harstall C, Louie T, Veldhuyzen van Zanten S, Dieleman LA. Systematic review: faecal transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35:865–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gough E, Shaikh H, Manges AR. Systematic review of intestinal microbiota transplantation (fecal bacteriotherapy) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:994–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brandt LJ, Aroniadis OC, Mellow M, et al. Long-term follow-up of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:1079–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:407–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walsh JA. Problems in recognition and diagnosis of amebiasis: estimation of the global magnitude of morbidity and mortality. Rev Infect Dis. 1986;8(2):228–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parveen H, Mukhtar S, Azam A. Novel ferrocenyl linked pyrazoline analogs as potent antiamoebic agents. J Heterocyclic Chem. 2016;53:473–8.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jhet.v53.2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Flores MS, Carrillo P, Tamez E, Rangel R, Rodríguez EG, Maldonado MG, Isibasi A, Galán L. Diagnostic parameters of serological ELISA for invasive amoebiasis, using antigens preserved without enzymatic inhibitors. Exp Parasitol. 2016;161:48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Sonnenberg E, Mueller PR, Schiffman HR, et al. Intrahepatic amebic abscesses: indications for and results of percutaneous catheter drainage. Radiology. 1985;156:631–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(1):7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bennish ML, Salam MA, Khan WA, Khan AM. Treatment of shigellosis: III. Comparison of one- or two-dose ciprofloxacin with standard 5-day therapy. A randomized, blinded trial. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(9):727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Sorvillo FJ, Lieb LE, Waterman SH. Incidence of campylobacteriosis among patients with AIDS in Los Angeles County. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4:598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tee W, Mijch A. Campylobacter jejuni bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients: comparison of clinical features and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gradel KO, Nielsen HL, Schønheyder HC, Ejlertsen T, Kristensen B, Nielsen H. Increased short- and long-term risk of inflammatory bowel disease after salmonella or campylobacter gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(2):495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Glotzer DJ, Glick ME, Goldman H. Proctitis and colitis following diversion of the faecal stream. Gastroenterology. 1981;80:438–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morson BP, Dawson MP. Gastrointestinal pathology. 1st ed. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1972.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Neut C, Guillemot F, Colombel JF. Colombel nitrate reducing bacteria in diversion colitis: a clue to inflammation. Dig Dis Sci. 1997;42(12):2577–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Villanacci V, Talbot IC, Rossi E, Basotti G. Ischaemia: a pathogenetic clue in diversion colitis. Color Dis. 2006;9:601–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whelan RL, Abramson D, Kim DS, Hashmi HF. Diversion colitis. A prospective study. Surg Endosc. 1994;8(1):19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Geraghty JM, Talbot IC. Diversion colitis: histological features in the colon and rectum after defunctioning colostomy. Gut. 1991;32:1020–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Komorowski RA. Histologic spectrum of diversion colitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14:548–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yeong ML, Bethwaite PB, Prasad J, Isbister WH. Lymphoid follicular hyperplasia-a distinctive feature of diversion colitis. Histopathology. 1991;19:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murray FE, O’Brien MJ, Birkett DH, Kennedy SM, LaMont JT. Diversion colitis. Pathologic findings in a resected sigmoid colon and rectum. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:1404–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harig JM, Soergel KH, Komorowski RA, Wood CM. Treatment of diversion colitis with short-chain-fatty acid irrigation. N Engl J Med. 1989;320(1):23–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mortensen FV, Langkilde NC, Joergensen JC, et al. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate mucosal cell proliferation in the closed human rectum after Hartmann’s procedure. Int J Color Dis. 1999;14:150–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kayaçetin E, Kayaçetin S. Colitis cystica profunda simulating rectal carcinoma. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105:306–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Valenzuela M, Martín-Ruiz JL, Alvarez-Cienfuegos E, Caballero AM, Gallego F, Carmona I, Rodríguez-Téllez M. Colitis cystica profunda: imaging diagnosis and conservative treatment: report of two cases. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:587–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dolar E, Kiyici M, Yilmazlar T, Gürel S, Nak SG, Gülten M. Colitis cystica profunda. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2007;18:206–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abid S, Khawaja A, Bhimani SA, Ahmad Z, Hamid S, Jafri W. The clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of the solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: a single-center experience of 116 cases. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Madigan MR, Morson BC. Solitary ulcer of the rectum. Gut. 1969;10(2):871–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rutter KRP, Riddell RH. The solitary ulcer syndrome of the rectum. Clin Gastroenterol. 1975;4:505–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ayantunde AA, Strauss C, Sivakkolunthu M, Malhotra A. Colitis cystica profunda of the rectum: an unexpected operative finding. World J Clin Cases. 2016;4(7):177–80.  https://doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v4.i7.177.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mitsunaga M, Izumi M, Uchiyama T, Sawabe A, Tanida E, Hosono K, Abe T, Shirahama K, Kanesaki A, Abe M. Colonic adenocarcinoma associated with colitis cystica profunda. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69:759–60. discussion 760–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Johnston MJ, Robertson GM, Frizelle FA. Management of late complications of pelvic radiation in the rectum and anus: a review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:247–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Leiper K, Morris AI. Treatment of radiation proctitis. Clin Oncol. 2007;19:724–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Do NL, Nagle D, Poylin VY. Radiation proctitis: current strategies in management. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:917941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sarin A, Safar B. Management of radiation proctitis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2013;42:913–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tagkalidis PP, Tjandra JJ. Chronic radiation proctitis. ANZ J Surg. 2001;71:230–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lenz L, Rohr R, Nakao F, Libera E, Ferrari A. Chronic radiation proctopathy: a practical review of endoscopic treatment. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;8(2):151–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Denton AS, Andreyev HJ, Forbes A, Maher EJ. Systematic review for non-surgical interventions for the management of late radiation proctitis. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:134–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Henriksson R, Franzén L, Littbrand B. Effects of sucralfate on acute and late bowel discomfort following radiotherapy of pelvic cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(6):969–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    O'Brien PC, Franklin CI, Dear KB, et al. A phase III double-blind randomized study of rectal sucralfate suspension in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis. Radiother Oncol. 1997;45(2):117–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Seo EH, Kim TO, Kim TG, et al. The efficacy of the combination therapy with oral and topical mesalazine for patients with the first episode of radiation proctitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56(9):2672–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kochhar R, Patel F, Dhar A, et al. Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate. Dig Dis Sci. 1991;36(1):103–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chruscielewska-Kiliszek MR, Regula J, Polkowski M, Rupinski M, Kraszewska E, Pachlewski J, Czaczkowska-Kurek E, Butruk E. Sucralfate or placebo following argon plasma coagulation for chronic radiation proctitis: a randomized double blind trial. Color Dis. 2013;15(1):e48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kennedy M, Bruninga K, Mutlu EA, Losurdo J, Choudhary S, Keshavarzian A. Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(4):1080–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ehrenpreis ED, Jani A, Levitsky J, Ahn J, Hong J. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of retinol palmitate (vitamin A) for symptomatic chronic radiation proctopathy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48(1):1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pinto A, Fidalgo P, Cravo M, Midões J, Chaves P, Rosa J, et al. Short chain fatty acids are effective in short term treatment of chronic radiation proctitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:788–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Talley NA, Chen F, King D, Jones M, Talley NJ. Short-chain fatty acids in the treatment of radiation proctitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 1997;40(9):1046–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cavcić J, Turcić J, Martinac P, et al. Metronidazole in the treatment of chronic radiation proctitis: clinical trial. Croat Med J. 2000;41(3):314–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Khan AM, Birk JW, Anderson JC, et al. A prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded pilot study of misoprostol rectal suppositories in the prevention of acute and chronic radiation proctitis symptoms in prostate cancer patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(8):1961–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hille A, Schmidberger H, Hermann RM, et al. A phase III randomized placebo-controlled, double blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patient with prostate cancer. In J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63:1488–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Clarke RE, Tenorio LM, Hussey JR, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of chronic refractory radiation proctitis: a randomized and controlled double-blind crossover trial with long-term follow-up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72(1):134–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah VP, Javali TD, Dharanipragada K, Reddy KS, Krishnamachari S. Formalin dab, the effective way of treating haemorrhagic radiation proctitis: a randomized trial from a tertiary care hospital in South India. Color Dis. 2012;14(7):876–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ismail MA, Qureshi MA. Formalin dab for haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2002;84(4):263–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ma T-H, Yuan Z-X, Zhong Q-H, Wang H-M, Qin Q-Y, Chen X-X, Wang J-P, Wang L. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(12):3593–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Swaroop VS, Gostout CJ. Endoscopic treatment of chronic radiation proctopathy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998;27:36–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sebastian S, O’Connor H, O’Morain C, Buckley M. Argon plasma coagulation as first-line treatment for chronic radiation proctopathy. J Gastrol Hepatol. 2004;19:1169–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tam W, Moore J, Schoeman M. Treatment of radiation proctitis with argon plasma coagulation. Endoscopy. 2000;32:667–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tjandra JJ, Sengupta S. Argon plasma coagulation is effective in the treatment of refractory radiation proctitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:1759–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jensen DM, Machicado GA, Cheng S, Jensen ME, Jutabha R. A randomized prospective study of endoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation and heater probe treatment of chronic rectal bleeding from radiation telangiectasia. Gastrointest Endosc. 1997;45:20–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Moawad FJ, Maydonovitch CL, Horwhat JD. Efficacy of cryospray ablation for the treatment of chronic radiation proctitis in a pilot study. Dig Endosc. 2013;25:174–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hou JK, Abudayyeh S, Shaib Y. Treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with cryoablation. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:383–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nikfarjam M, Faulx A, Laughinghouse M, Marks JM. Feasibility of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of chronic radiation proctitis. Surg Innov. 2010;17:92–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zhou C, Adler DC, Becker L, Chen Y, Tsai TH, Figueiredo M, Schmitt JM, Fujimoto JG, Mashimo H. Effective treatment of chronic radiation proctitis using radiofrequency ablation. Ther Adv Gastroenterol. 2009;2:149–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Eddi R, Depasquale JR. Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of radiation proctitis: a case report and review of literature. Ther Adv Gastroenterol. 2013;6:69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gleeson MH, Davis AJ. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and newly diagnosed colitis: A case-control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;17:817–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Geramizadeh B, Taghavi A, Banan B. Clinical, endoscopic and pathologic spectrum of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2009;28:150–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Aftab AR, Donnellan F, Zeb F, Kevans D, Cullen G, Courtney G. NSAID-induced colopathy. A case series. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2010;19:89–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tonolini M. Acute nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2013;6(4):301–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Colorectal SurgeryCleveland Clinic FloridaWestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Colorectal SurgeryUniversity of Chicago Medical CenterChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations