Patient Evaluation

  • Pasithorn A. Suwanabol
  • Justin A. MaykelEmail author


Throughout medicine and surgery, a comprehensive evaluation of patients with anorectal complaints requires a detailed history, a thorough physical examination, and the addition of directed diagnostic studies. Such a systematic approach will optimize the opportunity for an accurate diagnosis and the development of an effective management plan. In addition, an orderly approach facilitates a comfortable experience for the patient by simultaneously instilling confidence and minimizing embarrassment.


Anorectal complaints Proctology History and physical examination Anorectal examination Anoscopy Proctoscopy 



This chapter was written by Patricia L. Roberts, MD in the previous edition of this textbook. The authors would like to acknowledge W. Brian Sweeney, MD for providing photographs and Paul Trombley for creating the medical illustrations.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Colorectal SurgeryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of SurgeryUMass Memorial Health CareWorcesterUSA

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