Conclusions: The Fragmentation of Nationalist Party Families in the European Arena
Despite the scholarly emphasis on the relevance of identity politics in Europe, the political and electoral strength of minority and populist nationalist party families in the European Union remains limited to a minor space on the sides of the European party system. This chapter summarizes the main findings of the book and compares the Europeanization of these opposing nationalist party families both in their perspectives on European Integration and in their transnational inroads in the European arena. The image of minority and populist nationalist parties as polar opposites on European integration is more blurred than expected; yet perspectives on European integration add to the ideological differentiation of both nationalist party families. The weight of minority and populist nationalist party families in the European party system has improved in European elections and so is the number of MEPs elected in the European parliament. Populist nationalist parties have doubled the size of the minority nationalist party family during the 2009–2014 European elections. However, the historical trajectories of Europeanization of minority and populist nationalist party families share a structural fragmentation since translation mechanisms impinge on transnational party coordination. The choice between going on their own in political groups and integrating in other political groups and Europarties marks the fragmented evolution of Europeanized nationalisms.
- Akkerman, T., S. de Lange, and M. Roodhuijn, eds. 2016. Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe: Into the Mainstream? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Almeida, D. 2012. The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- De Winter, L. 1998. Conclusion. A Comparative Analysis of the Electoral, Office and Policy Success of Ethnoregionalist Parties. In Regionalist Parties in Western Europe, ed. L. De Winter and H. Türsan. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- De Winter, L., M. Gómez-Reino, and J. Buelens. 2006a. The Vlaams Blok and the Heritage of Extreme-Right Flemish Nationalism. In Autonomist Parties in Europe: Identity Politics and the Revival of the Centre-Periphery Cleavage, vol. 2, 47–78. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
- De Winter, L., M. Gómez-Reino, and P. Lynch. 2006b. Autonomist Parties in Europe. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
- EFA. 2009. EFA’s Electoral Manifesto for the European Elections 2009. http://www.e-f-a.org/aboutus/documents/1-electoral-manifestos/2009/.
- ———. 2014. The EFA Manifesto for the 2014 European Elections. http://www.e-f-a.org/about-us/documents/1-electoral-manifestos/2014/.
- Elias, A., and Filippo Tronconi, eds. 2011. From Protest to Power: Autonomist Parties and the Challenges of Representation. Wien: Braumüller Verlag.Google Scholar
- Gómez-Reino, M. 2014. European Integration and An Alternative Party Family: Regionalist Parties and the European Question. In Europe’s Contending Identities: Supranationalism, Ethnoregionalism, Religion and New Nationalism, ed. Andrew C. Gould and Anthony M. Messina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Gómez-Reino, M., L. De Winter, and P. Lynch. 2006. The Future Study of Autonomist and Regionalist Parties. In Autonomist Parties in Western Europe. Identity Politics and the Revival of the Territorial Cleavage. Barcelona: ICPS.Google Scholar
- Hooghe, L., and Gary Marks. 2017. Cleavage Theory Meets Europe’s Crises: Lipset, Rokkan and the Transnational Cleavage. Journal of European Public Policy (published online).Google Scholar
- Hooghe, Lisbeth, Gary Marks, and Carole Wilson. 2004. Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions on European Integration? In European Integration and Political Conflict, ed. Gary Marks and Marco R. Steenbergen. Cambridge: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
- Johansson, K.M. 2009. The Emergence of Political Parties at European Level: Integration Unaccomplished. In How Unified Is the European Union? European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy, ed. S. Gustavsson, L. Oxelheim, and L. Pehrson. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Kreppel, A. 2002. The European Parliament and the Supranational Party System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Máiz, R., ed. 2001. Construcción de Europa, Democracia y Globalización. Santiago: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela.Google Scholar
- Máiz, R., and F. Requejo, eds. 2005. Democracy, Nationalism, and Multiculturalism. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
- Messina, A. 2014. European Disunion? The Implications of ‘Superdiversity’ for European Identity and Political Community. In Europe’s Contending Identities: Supranationalism, Ethnoregionalism, Religion and New Nationalism, ed. A. Messina and A. Gould. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Morris, M. 2013. Conflicted Politicians. The Populist Radical Right in the European Parliament. London: Counterpoint.Google Scholar
- Skocpol, T., and P. Pierson. 2002. Historical Institutionalism in Contemporary Political Science. In Political Science: State of the Discipline, ed. I. Katznelson and H. Milner. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Steinmo, S. 2008. Historical Institutionalism. In Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences: A Pluralist Perspective, ed. D. Della Porta and M. Keating. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Urwin, D. 1983. Harbinger, Fossil or Fleabite. In West European Party Systems. Continuity and Change, ed. P. Mair. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar