Classification of Macular Hemorrhages

  • Silvia BoppEmail author
  • Alireza Mirshahi


Several therapeutic strategies are available for the treatment of submacular hemorrhages. The key points for choosing the appropriate therapy are (1) the underlying pathology, commonly a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM), especially in AMD patients, followed by non-AMD-related CNVM and retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAM) and (2) the extent and location of the hemorrhage including size, thickness, and location in relation to the fovea and the layer in which the blood is present. We suggest a classification to be used for clinical decision-making and also in future studies when comparing efficacy of different treatment strategies for macular hemorrhage. This classification considers the size and extent, thickness, and the retinal layers involved.


Macular hemorrhage Classification Size Sub-RPE Subretinal Age-related macular degeneration Retinal macroaneurysm 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eye Clinic UniversitätsalleeBremenGermany
  2. 2.Dardenne Eye HospitalBonnGermany

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