Surgical Anatomy of Kidneys and Adrenals
In this chapter, surgical anatomy of kidneys and adrenals is described in detail. Their anatomical relationships and preoperative evaluation of retroperitoneal anatomy are illustrated for providing anatomic information necessary to plan the surgical procedure. This evaluation is crucial, in robotic surgery, for detecting vascular anomalies and helps the surgeon to easier dissect atypical renal or adrenal vessels. We also describe the practical surgical options of dissection to give to the operator the capacity to anticipate difficulties and overcome them.
Acknowledgment to Dr. Al Said B. for the anatomical illustrations and Dr. Hubert N. for the preoperative pictures.
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