MediaSync pp 649-676 | Cite as

Network Delay and Bandwidth Estimation for Cross-Device Synchronized Media

Chapter

Abstract

Driven by the growth in mobile phone and tablet ownership, recent years have witnessed an increasing trend towards coordinated media experiences across multiple devices. The quality of experience (QoE) over such new generation applications is dictated by the quality of service (QoS) of underlying networks. Inevitable network delay and bandwidth fluctuations affect the communications and media synchronization between connected devices. Therefore, network measurement is becoming the key to providing essential information for the QoE assurance of cross-device synchronized media. Amongst many network measurement techniques, packet probing is considered as the most effective for end-to-end evaluations. Packet probing may seem straightforward, but it requires a good understanding of the methodologies and how the results should be interpreted. This chapter provides a guide and some best practices in packet probing, accompanied with a use case where delay measurement enhances cross-device media synchronization and the QoE of an immersive media application.

Keywords

Packet probing Network monitoring Inter-destination media synchronization Immersive media Quality of experience 

Notes

Definitions

Network probing

Network probing techniques use special packet configurations, and measure transmission and receipt times of packets to derive information such as delays, capacity and available bandwidth of a network path.

Cross-Device Synchronized Media

Associated media content delivered synchronously across multiple (types of) devices to elicit immersive user experience.

References

  1. 1.
    Geerts, D., Leenheer, R., De Grooff, D.: In front of and behind the second screen: viewer and producer perspectives on a companion app. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Interactive Experience of Television and Online Video (TVX 2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cesar, P., Bulterman, D.C.A., Jansen, A.J.: Usages of the secondary screen in an interactive television environment: control, enrich, share, and transfer television content. In: Changing Television Environments, pp. 168–177. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Total Audience Report Q3 2016. The Nielson Total Audience Series (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mobile Video: Exposed, in Streaming Video Alliance (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jones, B.R., et al.: IllumiRoom: peripheral projected illusions for interactive experiences. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing SystemsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas, G., et al.: Surround Video. White Paper WHP 208. https://www.downloads.bbc.co.uk/rd/pubs/whp/whp-pdf-files/WHP208.pdf
  7. 7.
    Montagud, M., et al.: Inter-destination multimedia synchronization: schemes, use cases and standardization. Multimed. Syst. (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mu, M., et al.: Closing the gap: human factors in cross-device media synchronization. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Sign. Process. (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yuan, Z., et al.: Perceived synchronization of mulsemedia services. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 17(7), 957–966 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jin, M., et al.: DualSync: taming clock skew variation for synchronization in low-power wireless networks. In: The 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE INFOCOM 2016. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W3C, Multi-device timing architecture. https://www.w3.org/community/webtiming/architecture/ (2016)
  12. 12.
    Gotoh, T., Imamura, K., Kaneko, A.: Improvement of NTP time offset under the asymmetric network with double packets method. In: Conference Digest 2002 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2002. IEEE (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jeong, J.-M., Kim, J.-D.: Effective bandwidth measurement for Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP. In: 2015 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas, E., et al.: Enhancing MPEG DASH performance via server and network assistance. SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 126(1), 22–27 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacobson, V., Leres, C., McCanne, S.: libpcap: a portable C/C++ library for network traffic capture. https://www.tcpdump.org/
  16. 16.
    Paul, A.K., Tachibana, A., Hasegawa, T.: An enhanced available bandwidth estimation technique for an end-to-end network path. IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage. 13(4), 768–781 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prasad, R., et al.: Bandwidth estimation: metrics, measurement techniques, and tools. IEEE Netw. 17(6), 27–35 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mah, B.: Estimating bandwidth and other network properties. In: Internet Statistics and Metrics Analysis Workshop on Routing and Topology Data Sets: Correlation and Visualization (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Al-Najjar, A., et al.: Link capacity estimation in SDN-based end-hosts. In: 2016 10th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS). IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Delphinanto, A., Koonen, T., Den Hartog, F.: Real-time probing of available bandwidth in home networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(6) (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mills, D., et al.: Network time protocol version 4: protocol and algorithms specification (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferreira Moreno, M., de Resende Costa, R.M., Gomes Soares, L.F.: Interleaved time bases in hypermedia synchronization. IEEE MultiMed. 22(4), 68–78 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yuste, L.B., et al.: Understanding timelines within MPEG standards. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 18(1), 368–400 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schulzrinne, H.: A transport protocol for real time applications. RFC 3550 (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Friedman, T., Caceres, R., Clark, A.: RFC 3611. RTP Control Protocol Extended Reports (RTCP XR), pp. 1–49 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mu, M., et al.: QoE-aware inter-stream synchronization in open N-Screens cloud. In: The 13th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of NorthamptonNorthamptonUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.TNOThe HagueThe Netherlands
  3. 3.DoVes ResearchCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations