Conclusions: A Critical Analysis of the PPM Measures’ Legal Regime De Lege Lata and De Lege Ferenda

  • David Sifonios
Part of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law book series (EUROYEAR, volume 3)


The product-process distinction, in the form it was expressed mainly in the US – Tuna GATT Panel reports, has been largely undermined by different evolutions of case law. It might thus be asked what is left of this doctrine in the current Appellate Body’s practice. The product-process distinction was mainly based on the following assumptions:
  1. (i)

    PPM measures are not covered by Article III but are subject to Articles II (tariffs) and XI (prohibition of quantitative restrictions) ;

  2. (ii)

    In any event, differences in PPMs cannot render two products unlike and thus cannot be justified under Article III ;

  3. (iii)

    Unincorporated PPM measures are extraterritorial in nature and thus cannot in principle be justified by Article XX ;

  4. (iv)

    PPM measures that unilaterally prescribe the adoption of a particular conduct abroad threaten the multilateral trading system and are thus unjustifiable ;

  5. (v)

    When it comes to technical barriers to trade, the TBT Agreement only applies to incorporated PPMs and does not cover unincorporated PPMs.



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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Sifonios
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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