Advertisement

Introduction

  • David Sifonios
Chapter
Part of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law book series (EUROYEAR, volume 3)

Abstract

Environmental policies aimed at managing the environmental impact of products are often based on a life-cycle analysis, which takes into consideration the production, consumption and disposal phases of a product’s life. States may seek to adopt product standards or disposal requirements that reduce environmental effects but also to regulate the production methods of the goods sold in their internal market, including imported products. Certain production methods may indeed result in important environmental harm. For instance, natural resource exploitation may result in extensive environmental damages, such as incidental catch of non-target species in fish trawling, destruction of primary forests to harvest tropical timber or the use of certain farming methods (slash and burn, extensive use of chemicals, etc.). Another significant impact of goods’ production is greenhouse gas emissions, which affect the global climate regardless of the precise location of the emission sources. In other words, the interdependence of ecosystems implies that the environmental impact of the production methods of product in one particular country can have effects in other countries.

Bibliography

  1. Appleton, Arthur E., Environmental Labelling Programs: Limitations pursuant to General International Law, the UNCED Instruments, and the WTO, PhD thesis, The Graduate Institute, Geneva 1997 [cit. Appleton (1997a)]Google Scholar
  2. Appleton, Arthur E., “Private Standards and Labelling Schemes and the TBT”, in Thomas Cottier et al. (eds), International Trade Regulation and the Mitigation of Climate Change: World Trade Forum, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, 131-151Google Scholar
  3. Bhagwati, Jagdish/Mavroidis, Petros C., “Is Action against US Exports for Failure to Sign the Kyoto Protocol WTO-legal?”, 6(2) World Trade Review (2007) 299-310Google Scholar
  4. Charnovitz, Steve, “The Moral Exception in Trade Policy”, 38 Virginia Journal of International Law (1998) 689-745Google Scholar
  5. Charnovitz, Steve, “The Law of Environmental ‘PPMs’ in the WTO: Debunking the Myth of Illegality”, 27(1) Yale Journal of International Law (2002) 59-110Google Scholar
  6. Condon, Bradly J., “Climate Change and Unresolved Issues in WTO Law”, 12(4) Journal of International Economic Law (2009) 895-926Google Scholar
  7. Conrad, Christiane R., Processes and Production Methods (PPMs) in WTO law: Interfacing Trade and Social Goals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2011Google Scholar
  8. Cooreman, Barbara, Global Environmental Protection Through Trade: A Systematic Approach to Extraterritoriality, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham 2017Google Scholar
  9. Davey, William J., “Dispute Settlement in GATT”, 11(1) Fordham International Law Journal (1987) 52-109Google Scholar
  10. GATT Secretariat, “Trade and the Environment”, in International Trade 1990-1991, Vol. 1, Geneva 1992Google Scholar
  11. Green, Andrew, “Climate Change, Regulatory Policy and the WTO: How Constraining are Trade Rules?”, 8(1) Journal of International Economic Law (2005) 143-189Google Scholar
  12. Guzman, Andrew T., “Trade, Labor, Legitimacy”, 91 California Law Review (2003) 885-902Google Scholar
  13. Guzman, Andrew T., “Global Governance and the WTO”, 45 Harvard International Law Journal (2004) 303-351Google Scholar
  14. Holzer, Kateryna, Carbon-Related Border Adjustment and WTO Law, E. Elgar, Northampton 2014Google Scholar
  15. Howse, Robert, “The World Trade Organization and the Protection of Workers’ Rights”, 3 The Journal of Small and Emerging Business Law (1999) 131-172Google Scholar
  16. Howse, Robert/Regan, Donald, “The Product/Process Distinction – An Illusory Basis for Disciplining ‘Unilateralism’ in Trade Policy”, 11(2) European Journal of International Law (2000) 249-289Google Scholar
  17. Hudec, Robert E., “The Product-Process Distinction in GATT/WTO Jurisprudence”, in Marco Bronckers and Reinhard Quick (eds), New Directions in International Economic Law: Essays in Honour of John H. Jackson, Kluwer Law International, The Hague 2000, 187-217Google Scholar
  18. Hufbauer, Gary Clyde/Charnovitz, Steve/Kim, Jisun, Global Warming and the World Trading System, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington D.C. 2009Google Scholar
  19. Jackson, John, The World Trading System, The MIT Press, Cambridge Mass./London 1997Google Scholar
  20. Joshi, Manoj, “Are Eco-Labels Consistent with World Trade Organization Agreements?” 38(1) Journal of World Trade (2004) 69-92Google Scholar
  21. Luff, David, Le droit de l’organisation mondiale du commerce: analyse critique, Bruylant/L.G.D.J., Bruxelles/Paris 2004Google Scholar
  22. Marceau, Gabrielle, “WTO Dispute Settlement and Human Rights”, 13(4) European Journal of International Law (2002) 753-814Google Scholar
  23. Matsushita, Mitsuo/Schoenbaum, Thomas J./Mavroidis, Petros C./Michael Hahn, The World Trade Organization : Law, Practice, and Policy, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015Google Scholar
  24. McGinnis, John O./Movsesian, Mark L., “Against Global Governance in the WTO”, 45 Harvard Law Review (2004) 353-365Google Scholar
  25. Nadakavukaren Schefer, Krista, Social Regulation in the WTO: Trade Policy and International Legal Development, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham/Northampton 2010Google Scholar
  26. Okubo, Atsuko, “Environmental Labelling Programs and the GATT/WTO Regime”, 11 Georgetown International Law Review (1999) 599-646Google Scholar
  27. Pauwelyn, Joost, “Recent Books on Trade an Environment: GATT Phantoms Still Haunt the WTO”, 15(3) European Journal of International Law (2004) 575-592Google Scholar
  28. Pauwelyn, Joost, U.S. Federal Climate Policy and Competitiveness Concerns: The Limits and Options of International Trade Law, Working Paper, Nicolas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, 2007Google Scholar
  29. Perrez, Franz Xaver, Cooperative Sovereignty: From Independence to Interdependence in the Structure of International Environmental Law, Kluwer Law International, The Hague 2000Google Scholar
  30. Regan, Daniel, “How to Think about PPMs”, in Thomas Cottier et al. (eds), International Trade Regulation and the Mitigation of Climate Change: World Trade Forum, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, 97-123Google Scholar
  31. Sands, Philippe, Principles of International Environmental Law, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012Google Scholar
  32. Schoenbaum, Thomas J., “International Trade and Protection of the Environment: The Continuing Search for Reconciliation”, 91(2) American Journal of International Law (1997) 268-313Google Scholar
  33. Steward, Richard B., “Environmental Regulation and International Competitiveness”, 102(8) Yale Law Journal (1993) 2039-2106Google Scholar
  34. Vranes, Erich, Trade and the Environment: Fundamental Issues in International Law, WTO Law and Legal Theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2009Google Scholar
  35. Zeitler, Helge Elisabeth, Einseitige Handelbescränkungen zum Schutz extraterritorialer Rechtsgüter: eine Untersuchung zum GATT, Gemeinschaftsrecht und allgemeinen Völkerrecht, Nomos, Baden-Baden 2000Google Scholar
  36. Ziegler, Andreas R./Sifonios, David, “The Assessment of Environmental Risks and Process and Production Methods (PPMs) in International Trade Law”, in Monika Ambrus, Rosemary Rayfuse and Wouter Werner (eds), Risk and the Regulation of Uncertainty in International Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York 2017Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Sifonios
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations