Advertisement

Nail Imaging

  • Mark Holzberg
Chapter

Abstract

Diagnosis of tumors and inflammatory processes of the nail can be a challenge and non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are becoming popular tools in the characterization of disease. Localization of small tumors can be difficult and lead to multiple surgeries. Extension of tumors can lead to surgical recurrences. Both US and MRI help in the differentiation of tumor types, aid in pre-surgical evaluation, and help in quantifying the amount of inflammation in what might appear as a minimally or non-inflammatory process in a non-invasive manner. These modalities should be strongly considered in evaluation of nail disease leading to better management of nail disease and conditions.

Keywords

Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Ultrasound Ultrasonography X-ray Exostosis Computed Tomography (CT) Glomus tumor Synovial cyst Myxoid cyst Subungual exostosis Kaposi’s sarcoma Koenen’s tumor Fibrokeratoma Dermatofibroma Neuroma Schwannoma Neurofibroma Giant cell tumors Keratoacanthoma Psoriasis Enthesitis Enthesis Onychomadesis Retronychia 

Supplementary material

324020_4_En_26_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (36 kb)
Patient Handout (PDF 36 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Camirand P, Rowe WF. Subungual glomus tumor. Radiological manifestations. Arch Dermatol. 1970;102:677–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Drapé JL. Imaging of the tumors of the perionychium. Hand Clin. 2002;655:655–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Edelman RR, Warach S. Magnetic resonance imaging. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:708–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richert B, Baghaie M. Medical imaging and MRI in nail disorders: report of 119 cases and review of the literature. Dermatol Ther. 2002;15:159–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goettmann S, Drapé JL, Idy-Peretti I, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging: a new tool in the diagnosis of tumors of the nail apparatus. Br J Dermatol. 1994;130:701–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dalrymple NC, Hayes J, Bessinger VJ, et al. MRI of multiple glomus tumors of the finger. Skelet Radiol. 1997;26:664–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Drapé JL. Imaging of tumors of the nail unit. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2004;21:493–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Qattan MM, Al-Namla A, Al-Thunayan, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of glomus tumors of the hand. J Hand Surg. 2005;30B:535–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holzberg M. Glomus tumor of the nail. A ‘red herring’ clarified by magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:160–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dailana ZH, Drapé JL, Le Viet D. A glomus tumor with four recurrences. J Hand Surg. 1999;24:131–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Drapé JL, Idy-Peretti I, Goettmann S, et al. MR imaging of digital mucoid cysts. Radiology. 1996;200:531–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choi JH, Shin DH, Shin DS, et al. Subungual keratoacanthoma: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Skelet Radiol. 2007;36:769–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McGonagle D. Enthesitis: an autoinflammatory lesion linking nail and joint involvement in psoriatic disease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23(Supp):9–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tan AL, Benjamin M, Toumi H, et al. The relationship between the extensor tendon enthesis and the nail in distal interphalangeal joint disease in psoriatic arthritis—a high-resolution MRI and histological study. Rhematology. 2007;46:253–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scarpa R, Soscia E, Peluso R, et al. Nail and distal interphalangeal joint in psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2006;33:1315–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fenster A, Downey DB. 3-D ultrasound imaging – a review. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 1996;15:41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wortsman X, Jemec GBE. Ultrasound imaging of the nails. Dermatol Clin. 2006;24:323–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wortsman X, Wortsman J, Soto R, et al. Benign tumors and pseudotumors of the nail, a novel application of sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 2010;29:803–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wollina U, Berger M, Karte K. Calculation of nail plate and nail matrix parameters by 20 MHz ultrasound in healthy volunteers and patients with skin disease. Skin Res Technol. 2001;7:60–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fornage BD. Glomus tumors in the fingers: diagnosis with US. Radiology. 1988;167:183–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen S, Chen Y, Cheng M, et al. The use of ultrasonography in preoperative localization of digital glomus tumors. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112:115–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Acquitter M, Misery L, Saraux A, et al. Detection of subclinical ultrasound enthesopathy and nail disease in patients at risk of psoriatic arthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2016;S1297-319X(16):30198–1.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutierrez M, Wortsman X, Filippucci E, et al. High-frequency sonography in the evaluation of psoriasis. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1569–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wortsman X, Holm EA, Jemec GBE. Fifteen MHz high resolution ultrasound of the psoriatic nail. Revista Chilena de Radiologia. 2004;10:6–11.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wortsman X, Wortsman J, Guerrero R, et al. Anatomical changes in retronychia and onychomadesis detected using ultrasound. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36:1615–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wortsman X, Calderon P, Baran R. Finger retronychias detected early by 3D ultrasound examination. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26:254–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations