Advertisement

Nails in Systemic Disease

  • Shari R. Lipner
  • Monica Lawry
  • George Kroumpouzos
  • Richard K. Scher
  • C. Ralph DanielIII
Chapter

Abstract

Nails abnormalities can be readily examined by dermatologists and may be the first indication that there is an underlying systemic disease. Splinter hemorrhages are usually due to trauma, but subacute bacterial endocarditis is another possible cause. Leukonychia is more specifically associated with systemic disease, and examples include half and half nails, Terry’s nails, and Muehrke’s lines. In yellow nail syndrome, there is a classic triad of thick and yellow nails with increased transverse curvature, absent cuticles, and slow growth rate, as well as, lymphedema, and respiratory tract involvement. Nails changes are common in pregnancy, specifically increased transverse curvature, and brittleness.

Keywords

Nails Systemic disease Pregnancy HIV Genodermatoses Rheumatologic conditions Leukonychia Splinter hemorrhages Beau’s lines Pitting Koilonychia Clubbing 

Supplementary material

324020_4_En_21_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (23 kb)
Patient Handout (PDF 23 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Jemec GB, Kollerup G, Jensen LB, Morgensen S. Nail abnormalities in nondermatologic patients: prevalence and possible role as diagnostic aids. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:977–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dupond AS, Magy N, Humbert P, Dupond JL. Manifestations ungueales des maladies generales. La Revue du Practicien. 2000;50:2236–40.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zaias N. The nail in health and disease. New York: Spectrum Publications; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniel CR, Daniel MP. Nail signs of systemic disease. Consultant. 1995;35:392.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniel CR. Nails in systemic disease. Audiotape presented at the meeting of the American Aca demy of Dermatology, New Orleans. 1995.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Daniel CR, Scher RI. The nail. In: Sams WM, Lynch PJ, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone; 1996. p. 763–77.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kilpatrick ZM, Greenberg PA, Sanford JP. Splinter hemorrhages – their clinical significance. Arch Intern Med. 1965;115:730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blum M, Avinam AL. Splinter hemorrhages in patients receiving regular hemodialysis. JAMA. 1978;239:44.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fitzpatrick TB. Dermatology in general medicine. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1979.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Samman PD. The nails in disease. 3rd ed. Chicago: Year Book; 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zaias N. The nail in health and disease. New York: Spectrum Publications; 1980. citing Alkiewicz J. Zur Histopathologie der Hamatome des Menschlichen Nagels. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 1033; 168:411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moschella SL, Hurley HJ, editors. Cutaneous manifestations of immunodeficiency in dermatology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1985. p. 218.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cohen PR, Scher RI. Geriatric nail disorders: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26:521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norton L. Determining if subungual bleeding signals systemic disease, trauma. Skin Allergy News. 1991;22:5.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tosti A, Baran R, Dawber RPR. The nail in systemic diseases and drug-induced changes. In: Baran R, Dawber RPR, editors. Diseases of the nails and their management. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1994. p. 175–261.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Penas PF, Porras JI, Fraga J, et al. Microscopic polyangiitis. A systemic vasculitis with a positive P-ANCA. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134(3):542–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Barber D. What do Beau’s lines mean. Int J Dermatol. 1994;33:545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baran R, Dawber RPR. Disease of the nails and their management. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1994.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baran R, Dawber RPR. Physical signs. In: Baran R, Dawber RPR, editors. Diseases of the nails and their management. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1994. p. 35–80.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bernier V, Labreze C, Bury F, Taieb A. Nail matrix arrest in the course of hand, foot and mouth disease. Eur J Pediatr. 2001;160:649–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clementz GC, Mancini AJ. Nail matrix arrest following hand-foot mouth disease: a report of five children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17:7–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tosti A, Piraccini BM. Onychomadesis and pyogenic granuloma following cast immobilization. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:231–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lewin K. The fingernail in general disease. Br J Dermatol. 1965;77:431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DeNicola P, Morsiani M, Zavagli G. Nail diseases in internal medicine. Springfield: Charles C Thomas; 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daniel CR. Onycholysis: an overview. Semin Dermatol. 1991;10:34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Degowin EL, Degowin RL. The nails in bedside diagnostic examination. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan; 1969.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Luria MN, Asper SP. Onycholysis in hyperthyroidism. Ann Intern Med. 1958;49:102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lavoy MR, Gluhm GB, Morales A. The occurrence of nail pitting in Reiter’s syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980;2:66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pajarre R, Kemo M. Nail changes as the first manifestation of HLA B27 inheritance. Dermatologica. 1977;154:350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Urowitz M, Gladman DD, Chalmers A, et al. Nail lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 1978;5:441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dupre A, Viraben R, Bonafe JL, et al. Zebra-like dermatomyositis. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117:63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Patel KB, Sharma OP. Nail in sarcoidosis: response to treatment. Arch Dermatol. 1983;119:277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Baumal A, Robinson MJ. Nail bed involvement in pemphigus vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 1973;107:751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stone OJ. Spoon nails and clubbing. Cutis. 1975;16:235.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stone OJ, Maberry JD. Spoon nails and clubbing. Tex State J Med. 1965;61:620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jalili MA, Al-Kassaf S. Koilonychia and cystine content of nails. Lancet. 1959;i:108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bentley-Phillips B, Bayles MA. Occupational koilonychia of the toenails. Br J Dermatol. 1971;85:140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baran R. Nail changes in general pathology. In: Pierre M, editor. The nail. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1981. p. 5–105.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Runne U, Orfanos CE. The human nail. In: Mali WH, Karger S, editors. Current problems in dermatology, vol. 9. Basel: S Karger; 1981. p. 102–49.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bergeron JR, Stone OJ. Koilonychia: a report of familial spooned nails. Arch Dermatol. 1967;95:351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baran R, Achten G. Les associations congenitales de koilonychia et de leuconychie totale. Arch Beiges Syphiligr. 1969;25:13.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hordinsky MK. Hair. In: Sams M, Lynch P, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1990. p. 761–80.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cohen PR, Prystowsky JH. Metabolic and nutritional disorders. In: Sams W, Lynch P, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. New York: Churchill-Livingstone; 1990. p. 665–81.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Daniel CR, Osment LS. Nail pigmentation abnormalities, their importance and proper examination. Cutis. 1980;25:595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Takeuchi Y, Iwase N, Suzuki M, Tsuyuki S. Lichen planus with involvement of all twenty nails and the oral mucous membrane. J Dermatol. 2000;27:94–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Claude CD, Zic JA, Boyd AS. Idiopathic leukonychia totalis and partialis in a 12-year-old patient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:379–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Foti C, et al. Transverse leukonychia in severe hypocalcemia. Eur J Dermatol. 2004;14:67–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Marcilly MC, et al. Sub-total hereditary leukonychia, histopathology and electron microscopy study of ‘milky’ nails. Ann Dermatol Venereal. 2003;130:50–4.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hudson JB, Dennis AJ Jr. Transverse white lines in the fingernails after acute and chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med. 1976;117:276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pardo-Castello V. Diseases of the nails. 3rd ed. Springfield: Charles C Thomas; 1960.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Conn RD, Smith RH. Malnutrition, myoedema Muehrcke’s lines. Arch Intern Med. 1965;116:875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Muehrcke RC. The fingernails in chronic hypoalbuminemia. Br Med J. 1956;1:327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schwartz RA, Vickerman CE. Muehrcke’s lines of the fingernails. Arch Intern Med. 1979;139:242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Feldman SR, Gummon WR. Unilateral Muehrcke’s lines following trauma (letter). Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alam M, Scher RK, Bickers DR. Muehrcke’s lines in a heart transplant recipient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001a;44:316–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nabai H. Nail changes before and after heart transplantation: personal observation by a physician. Cutis. 1998;61:31–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ruggeri S, Viviano MT, Papi M, et al. Seasonal leukonychia: microvascular alteration? Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14(Suppl 1):113.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Daniel CR III, Bower JD, Daniel CR Jr. The half and half fingernail: the most significant onychopathological indicator of chronic renal failure. J Miss State Med Assoc. 1975;16:376.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Daniel CR III, Bower JD, Daniel CR Jr. The half and half fingernail: a clue to chronic renal failure. Proc Clin Dial Transplant Forum. 1975;5:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lubach D, Strubbe I. The frequency of subungual erythema. Z Hautkr. 1982;57:1486.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Terry R. White nails in hepatic cirrhosis. Lancet. 1954;i:757–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Holzberg M, Walker HK. Terry’s nails: revised definition and new correlations. Lancet. 1984;i:896–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Terry RB. The onychodermal band in health and disease. Lancet. 1955;i:179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Daniel CR. The nail. In: Sams M, Lynch P, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1990. p. 743–60.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lovibond JL. Diagnosis of clubbed fingers. Lancet. 1938;i:363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Goyal S, Griffiths AD, Omarouayache S, et al. An improved method of studying fingernail morphometry: application to the early detection of clubbing. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39:640–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brickman AS. Grand rounds: progressive shortening of the fingertips. Drug Ther. 1981;49.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mendlowitz M. Measurements of blood flow and blood pressure in clubbed fingers. J Clin Invest. 1941;20:113.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hall GH. The cause of digital clubbing. Lancet. 1959;i:750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bashour FA. Clubbing of the digits: physiologic considerations. J Lab Clin Med. 1961;58:613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ginsberg J, Brown JB. Increased estrogen exertion in hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy. Lancet. 1961;ii:1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mackie RM. Lupus erythematosus in association with finger clubbing. Br J Dermatol. 1973;89:533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Davis GM, Rubin J, Bauer JD. Digital clubbing due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Scherbenske JM, Benson PM, Rotchford JP, James WD. Cutaneous and ocular manifestations of Down syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    West SG, Gilbreath RE, Lawless OJ. Painful clubbing and sarcoidosis. JAMA. 1981;246:1338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Braverman IM. Skin signs of systemic disease. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1981.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pines A, Olchovsky D, Bregman J, et al. Finger clubbing associated with laxative abuse. South Med J. 1983;76:1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Burgdorf W. Cutaneous manifestations of Crohn’s disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981;5:689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Demis DJ, editor. Clubbing of the fingers in clinical dermatology, vol. 1. New York: Harper & Row; 1980.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brenner S, Srebrnik A, Kisch ES. Pachydermoperiostosis with new clinical and endocrinologic manifestation. Int J Dermatol. 1992;31:341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Just-Viera JO. Clubbed digits: an enigma. Arch Intern Med. 1964;113:122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Terry R. Red half -moons in cardiac failure. Lancet. 1954;ii:842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jeremias FJ, Sole MD, Conti M, Camarasa JG. Sindrome de las unas amarillas asociado a miocardiopatia. Med Cutan Iber Lat Am. 1996;24:279–82.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Barone SR, et al. The differentiation of classic Kawasaki disease, atypical Kawasaki disease, and acute adenoviral infection. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:453–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dhawan SS, Zaias N, Pena J. The nail fold in pemphigus vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Garg RK. Determination of ABOCH blood group-specific substances from fingernails. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1983;4:143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Samman PD. Management of disorders of the nails. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1982;7:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Beam AG, McKusick VA. Azure lunulae. JAMA. 1958;166:904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mathias CGT, Caldwell TM, Maibach HI. Contact dermatitis and gastrointestinal symptoms from hydroxyethylomethacrylate. Br J Dermatol. 1979;100:447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Greene RA, Scher RK. Nail changes associated with diabetes mellitus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;16:1015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Feingold KR, Elias PM. Endocrine-skin interactions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bissell GW, Sarakomoi K, Greenslit F. Longitudinal banded pigmentation of nails in primary adrenal insufficiency. JAMA. 1971;215:1656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Scher RK, Bodian AB. Brittle nails. Semin Dermatol. 1991;10:21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Scher RK. Brittle nails. Int J Dermatol. 1989;28:515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rook A, Wilkinson DS, Eblins FJG, et al. Textbook of dermatology. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1979.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Baran R, Dawber RPR. Diseases of the nails and their management. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1984.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Moschella SL, Pillsbury DM, Hurley HJ. Dermatology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1975.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Patki AH, Mehta JM. Pterygiumunguium in a patient with recurrent type 2 lepra reaction. Cutis. 1989;44:311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Menter MA, Morrison JGL. Lichen verrucosus et reticularis of Kaposi: a manifestation of acquired adult toxoplasmosis. Br J Dermatol. 1976;94:645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hirschmann JV. Cutaneous signs of systemic bacterial infection. In: Sams WM, Lynch PJ, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. New York: Churchill-Livingstone; 1990. p. 89–98.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Allen LA. Occult blood accumulation under the fingernails: a mechanism for the spread of blood-borne infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982;105:455.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Scher RK. Subungual scabies. Am J Dermatopathol. 1983;5:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Witkowski JA, Parish LC. Scabies, subungual areas harbor mites. JAMA. 1984;252:1318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kosinski MA, Stewart D. Nail changes associated with systemic disease and vascular insufficiency. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1989;6:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Daniel CR, Norton LA, Scher RI. The spectrum of nail disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Daniel CR. Nail disease in patients with HIV infection. In: Burgdorf WHC, Katz SI, editors. Dermatology, progress and perspectives: the proceedings of the 18th world congress of dermatology. New York: Parthenon; 1993. p. 382–5.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cribier B, et al. Nail changes in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134:1216–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Dompmartin D, Dompmartin A, Deluol AM, et al. Onychomycosis and AIDS: clinical and laboratory findings in 62 patients. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kaplan MH, Sadick N, McNutt NS, et al. Dermatologic findings and manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;16:485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lizama E, Logemann H. Proximal white subungual onychomycosis in AIDS. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35:290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rongioletti F, Persi A, Tripodi S, Rebora A. Proximal white subungual onychomycosis: a sign of immunodeficiency. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30:129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Elewski BE. Clinical pearl: proximal white subungual onychomycosis in AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29:631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Haley L, Daniel CR. Fungal infection of the nails. In: Scher RK, Daniel CR, editors. Nails: therapy, diagnosis, surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990. p. 106–19.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Daniel CR, Elewski BE. Candida as a nail pathogen in healthy patients. J Miss State Med Assoc. 1995;36:379–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Scher RK. Nail signs of systemic diseases (audiotape). Dialogues Dermatol. 1991;28.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fisher BK, Warner LC. Cutaneous manifestations of the AIDS: update 1987. Int J Dermatol. 1987;26:615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Montemarano AD, Benson PM, James WD, Croup MA. Acute paronychia apparently caused by Candida albicans in a healthy female. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Prose NS. HIV infection in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Prose NS, Abson KG, Scher RK. Disorders of the nails and hair associated with HIV infection. Int J Dermatol. 1992;31:453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Valenzano L, Giacalone B, Grillo LR, Ferraris AM. Compromissione ungueale in corso di AIDS. G Ital Dermatol Venereal. 1988;123:527.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Daniel CR. The diagnosis of nail fungal infection. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:1566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Straka BP, Whitaker DL, Morrison SH, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Eliezri Y, Silverstein SJ, Nuara GJ. Occurrence of human papilloma virus type 16 DNA in cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinomas. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rau RC, Baird IM. Crusted scabies in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (letter). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Drabick JJ, Lupton GP, Tompkins K. Crusted scabies in human immunodeficiency virus infection (letter). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Depaoli RT, Marks VJ. Crusted (Norwegian) scabies: treatment of nail involvement (letter). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Scher RK. Subungual scabies (letter). Am J Dermatopathol. 1983;5:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    High WA, Tyring SK, Taylor RS. Rapidly enlarging growth of the proximal nail fold. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:984–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kaplan MH, Sadick NS, Wieder J, et al. Antipsoriatic effects of zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus-associated psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rasokat H. Psoriasis in AIDS: remission with high dosage cotrimoxazole. A Hautkr. 1986;61:991.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Marcusson JA, Wetterberg L. Peptide-T in the treatment of AIDS associated psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Acta Derm Venereal (Stockh). 1989;69:86.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rosenberg EW, Noah D, Skinner RB. AIDS and psoriasis. Int J Dermatol. 1991;30:449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Belz J, Breneman DL, Nordlund JJ, Solinger A. Successful treatment of a patient with Reiter’s syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome using etretinate. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bluvelt A, Nahass GT, Pardo RJ, et al. Pityriasis rubra pilaris and HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Cohen S, Dicken CH. Generalized lichen spinulosus in an HIV positive man. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Daniel CR, Sams WM, Scher RI. Nails in systemic disease. In: Scher RK, Daniel CR, editors. Nails: therapy, diagnosis, surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990. p. 167–91.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Chernosky ME, Finley VK. Yellow nail syndrome in patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13:731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Daniel CR. Yellow nail syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14:844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Norton AL. Yellow nail syndrome controlled by vitamin E therapy (letter). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Scher RK. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and yellow nails (letter). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Goodman DS, Teplitz E, Wishner A, et al. Prevalence of cutaneous disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Daniel CR, Scher RK. Nail changes secondary to systemic drugs or ingestants. In: Scher RK, Daniel CR, editors. Nails: therapy, diagnosis, surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990. p. 192–201.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Glaser DA, Remlinger K. Blue nails and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: not always associated with azidothymidine use. Cutis. 1996;57:243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    James CW, McNeils KC, Cohen DM, et al. Recurrent ingrown toenails secondary to indinavir/ritonavir combination therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35:881–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ward HA, Russo GG, Shrum. Cutaneous manifestations of anti retroviral therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:284–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cohen PR. The lunula. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34:943.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Leppard B. Blue nails are a sign of HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS. 1999;10:479–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Itin PH, Gilli L, Nuesch R, et al. Erythema of the proximal nail fold in HIV-infected patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35:631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ruiz-Avila P, Tercedor J, Rodenas JM. Periungual erythema in HIV infected patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;37:1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ruiz-Avila P, Villen A, Rodenas JM. Painful periungual telangiectasia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Miller SJ. Nutritional deficiency and the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Gisht DB, Singh SS. Pigmented bands on nails: a new sign in malnutrition. Lancet. 1962;i:507.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Maricq HR. Familiar schizophrenia as defined by nail fold capillary pattern and selected psychiatric traits. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1963;136:216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Maricq HR. Capillary morphology and the course of illness in schizophrenic patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1966;142:63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Maricq HR. Association of a clearly visible subpapillary plexus with other peculiarities of the nail fold skin in some schizophrenic patients. Dermatologica. 1969;138:148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Patterson JW. Pterygium inversum unguius-like changes in scleroderma. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:1429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Goihman-Yahr M. Peculiar dyschromic changes of finger nails in a patient with multiple system atrophy. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:156–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Inglesse M, Haley HR, Elewski BE. Onychotillomania: 2 case reports. Cutis. 2004;73:171–4.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Bensler JM, Paauw DS. Apotemnophilia masquerading as medical morbidity. South Med J. 2003;96:674–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Alam M, Moossavi M, Ginsburg I, Scher RK. A psychometric study of patients with nail dystrophies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:851–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hediger C, Rost B, Itin P. Cutaneous manifestations in anorexia nervosa. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 2000;130:565–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Smith KE, Fenske NA. Cutaneous manifestations of alcohol abuse. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Marks G, Ellis JP. Yellow nails. Arch Dermatol. 1970;102:619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kandil E. Yellow nail syndrome. Int J Dermatol. 1973;12:236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pavlidakey GP, Hashimoto K, Blum D. Yellow nail syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ayres S, Michan R. Yellow nail syndrome, response to vitamin E. Arch Dermatol. 1973;108:267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Guin JD, Elleman JH. Yellow nail syndrome possible association with malignancy. Arch Dermatol. 1979;115:734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Decosta SD, Imber MJ, Baden HP. Yellow nail syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Bilen N, et al. Lymphoscintigraphy in yellow nail syndrome. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:433–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Samman PD, White WF. The ‘yellow nail’ syndrome. Br J Dermatol. 1964;76:153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Burrows NP, Jones RR. Yellow nail syndrome in association with carcinoma of the gall bladder. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1991;16:471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Moran MF. Upper respiratory problems in the yellow nail syndrome. Clin Otolaryngol. 1976;1:333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lodge JP, Hunter AM, Saunders NR. Yellow nail syndrome associated with empyema. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1989;14:328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Krebs A. Drug-induced nail disorders. Praxis. 1981;70:1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lubach D, Marghescu S. Yellow-nail syndrome <lurch D-enizillamin. Hautzt. 1979;30:547.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Mautner G, Scher RI. Yellow nail syndrome. J Geriatr Dermatol. 1993;1:106.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ocana I, Bejarno E, Ruiz I, et al. Intestinal lymphangiectasia and the yellow nail syndrome (letter). Gastroenterology. 1988;94:858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Knuckles MLF, Hodge SJ, et al. Yellow nail syndrome in association with sleep apnea. Int J Dermatol. 1986;25:588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Meirs HG, Gruel H, Perschmann Y, et al. Yellow nail syndrome. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1973;98:1529.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Abell E, Samman PD. Yellow nail syndrome treated by intralesional triamcinolone acetomide. Br J Dermatol. 1973;88:200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lebioda. Yellow nail syndrome. Przegl Dermatol. 1972;59:523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Nelson LM. Yellow nail syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1969;100:499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Norton L. Further observations on the yellow nail syndrome with therapeutic effects of oral alphatocopherol. Cutis. 1985;36:457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hazebrigg DE, McElroy RJ. The yellow nail syndrome. J Assoc Milit Dermatol. 1980;6:14.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Cohen PR, Prystowsky. Metabolic and nutritional disorders. In: Sams WM, Lynch PJ, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. p. 693–712.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Williams HC, Buffham R, Vivier A. Successful use of topical vitamin E solution in the treatment of nail changes in yellow nail syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Andre J, Walraevens C, DeDoncker P. Yellow nail syndrome infected by dermatophyte SPP: experience with itraconazole pulse treatment combined with vitamin E. Poster exhibit at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology, New Orleans. 1995.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Cornelius CE, Shelley WB. Shell nail syndrome associated with bronchiectasis. Arch Dermatol. 1967;96:694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Baran R. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis of Bazex. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:1613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Pecora AL, Landsman L, Imgrund SP, et al. Acrokeratoses paraneoplastics (Bazex’ syndrome). Arch Dermatol. 1983;119:820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bazex A, Salvador R, Dupre A. Syndrome paraneoplasique a type d’hyperkeratose des extremities: Guerison apres le traitement de Peoithelioma larynge. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr. 1965;72:182.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Paul SR, Perez-Atayde A, Williams DA. Interstitial pulmonary disease associated with dyskeratosis congenita. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1992;14:89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Lindsay PG. The half and half nail. Arch Intern Med. 1967;119:583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bean WB. A discourse on nail growth and unusual fingernails. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 1963;74:152.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kint A, Bussels L, Fernandes M, et al. Skin and nail disorders in relation to chronic renal failure. Acta Derm Venereal (Stockh). 1974;54:137.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Nixon DW, Pirozzi D, York RM, et al. Dermatological changes after systemic cancer therapy. Cutis. 1981;27:181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Daniel CR III. Nail pigmentation abnormalities: an addendum. Cutis. 1982;30:364.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Daniel CR III, Scher RK. Nail changes secondary to systemic drugs and ingestants. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;10:250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Scher RK. Yellow nail syndrome and half -and-half nail. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Leyden JJ, Wood MG. The half and half nail. Arch Dermatol. 1972;105:591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Stewart WK, Raffle EJ. Brown nail bed arcs and chronic renal disease. Br Med J. 1972;1:784.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Bussels L, Kint A, Fernandes M, et al. Lesions cutaneous et unqueales clans l’insuffisance rernile chronique. Arch Belg Dermatol Syphiligr. 1972;28:363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gilkes JJH, Eady RAJ, Rees LH, et al. Plasma immunoreactive melanotrophic hormones in patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Br Med J. 1975;1:656.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Lubach D, Strubbe J, Schmidt J. The half and half nail phenomenon in chronic hemodialysis patients. Dermatologica. 1982;164:350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Levitt JI. Creatine concentration of human fingernail and toenail clippings. Ann Intern Med. 1966;64:312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Saray Y, Seckin D, Gulec AT, et al. Nail disorders in hemodialysis and renal transplant recipients: a case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:197–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Tercedor J, Lopez-Hernandez B, Rodenas JM, Serrano S. Nail diseases in hemodialysis patients: case-control study. Poster exhibit from the European Nail Society meeting. 1997.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kelly MP, Kight MA, Castillo S. Trophic implications of altered body composition observed in or near nails of hemodialysis patients. Adv Ren Transplant Surg. 1998;5:241–51.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Hwang SM, Lee SH, Ahn SK. Pincer nail deformity and pseudo Kaposi’s sarcoma: complications of an artificial arteriovenous fistula for haemodialysis. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:1129–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Sarnow MR, Plotkin EL, Spinosa FA, Cohen R. Nail changes in the seropositive and seronegative arthritides. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1989;6:389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Lugo-Janer G, Sanchez JL, Santiago-Delpin E. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin disease in kidney transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Maricq HR, Spencer-Green C, LeRoy EC. Skin capillary abnormalities as indicators of organ involvement in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis), Raynaud’s syndrome and dermatomyositis. Am J Med. 1976;61:862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Minkin W, Rabhan NB. Office nail fold capillary microscopy using ophthalmoscope. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982;7:190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Herd JK. Nail fold capillary microscopy made easy. Arthritis Rheum. 1976;19:1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ohtsuka T, et al. Nail fold capillary abnormality and pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Monticone G, Colonna L, Palermi G, et al. Quantitative nail fold capillary microscopy findings in patients with acrocyanosis compared with patients having systemic sclerosis and control subjects. J Am Acad Dennatol. 2000;42:787–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Poszepczynska-Guigne E, et al. Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome. Epidemiologic features, clinical manifestations, and disease sequelae. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47:47–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Fonollosa V, et al. Morphologic capillary changes and manifestations of connective tissue diseases in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Lupus. 2001;10:628–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Scher RK, Tom DWK, Lally EV, et al. The clinical significance of PAS-positive deposits in cuticle-proximal nail fold biopsy specimens. Arch Dermatol. 1985;121:1406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Ohtsuka T, Yamakage A, Tamura T. Image analysis of nail fold capillaries in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. Cutis. 1995;56:215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Mannarino E, Pasqualini L, Fedeli F, et al. Nail fold capillaroscopy in the screening and diagnosis of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Angiology. 1994;45:37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Maricq HR, Maize JC. Nail fold capillary abnormalities. Clin Rheum Dis. 1982;8:45.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Ohtsuka T. The relation between nail fold bleeding and capillary microscopy abnormality in patients with connective tissue diseases. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:23–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Hamilton EBD. Nail studies in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1960;19:167.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Michel C, et al. Nail abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137:958–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Tosti A. The nail apparatus in collagen disorders. Semin Dermatol. 1991;10:71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Jaizzo JL, Gonzalez EB, Daniels JC. Red lunulae in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;8:711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Kint A, Herpe LV. Ungual anomalies in lupus erythematosus discoids. Dermatologica. 1976;153:298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Narehari SR, Srinivas CR, Kelkar SK. LE-like erythema and periungual telangiectasia among coffee plantation workers. Contact Dermatitis. 1990;22:296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Phelps RG, Fleischrnajer R. Clinical, pathologic, and immuno pathologic manifestations of the toxic oil syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    García-Patos, V, Bartralot, R, Ordi, J, Baselga, E, de Moragas, JM, Castells, A. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with red lunulae. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36:834–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Vaughn RY, Bailey JP, Field RS, et al. Diffuse nail dyschromia in black patients with SLE. J Rheumatol. 1990;17:640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Skowron R, Combemale P, Faisant M, Baran R. Functional melanonychia due to involvement of the nail matrix in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47:Sl87–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Pallis M, Hopkinson N, Powell R. Nail fold capillary density as a possible indicator of pulmonary capillary loss in systemic lupus erythematosus but nor in MLTD. J Rheumatol. 1991;18:1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Su WPD, Perniciaro C, Robgers RS, White JW. Chilblain lupus erythematosus (lupus pernio): clinical review of the Mayo Clinic experience and proposal of diagnostic criteria. Cutis. 1994;53:395.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Thiers BH, Dobson RL. Westwood Western conference on clinical dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980;3:651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Caputo R, Cappio F, Rigorri C, et al. Pterygium inversum unguius. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:1307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Norton LA. The nail. Lecture presented at Nail and Hair Symposium sponsored by Columbia University. 1989.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Odom RB, Stein KM, Maibach HI. Congenital painful aberrant hyponychium. Arch Dermatol. 1974;110:89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Shikano Y, Mori S, Kitajima Y. Detection of scleroderma with capillaroscopic abnormalities of nail folds. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35:857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Caputo R, Prandi G. Pterygium inversum unguium. Arch Dermatol. 1973;108:817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Drake L, Goodman TB. Pterygium inversum unguium. Soc Transact Arch Dermatol. 1976;112:255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Nogira T, Yamashita H, Kawashima M, Hidano A. Pterygium inversum unguis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Fleischmajer R. Unusual nail findings. Lecture presented at the meeting of the American Dermatological Society of Allergy and Immunology, New Orleans. 1980.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sato S, Takehara K, Sama Y, et al. Diagnostic significance of nail fold bleeding in scleroderma spectrum disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Maricq HR. Capillary abnormalities, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and systemic sclerosis in patients with localized scleroderma. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Barrow MV. The nails in multicentric reticulohistiocytosis. Arch Dermatol. 1967;95:200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Tani M, Hori K, Nakanishi T, et al. Multicentric reticulo – histiocytosis. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117:495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sahin AA, Kaloncu AF, Selouk ZT, et al. Behcet’s disease with half and half nail and pulmonary artery aneurysm (letter). Chest. 1990;97:1277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Greaves MS, Fieller NRJ, Moll JMH. Differentiation between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a biochemical and statistical analysis of fingernail amino acids. Scand J Rheumatol. 1979;8:33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Maeda K, Kawaquchi S, Niwa T, et al. Identification of some abnormal metabolites in psoriasis nail using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr. 1980;221:199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Rasmussen. Childhood psoriasis in pediatric dermatology, dermavision. Videotape presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology, Evanston, IL. 1982.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Blockmans D, Vermylen J, Babhaers H. Nail fold: I capillaroscopy in connective tissue disorders in Raynaud’s phenomenon. Acta Clin Belg. 1993;48:30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Gibson GE, Su WPD, Pittlekow MR. Antiphospholipid syndrome and the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36:970–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Chanda JJ, Callen JP. Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1978;114:626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Wanscher B, Thormann. Permanent anonychia after Stevens Johnson syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Zaias H. Diseases of the nails. In: Demis J, Dobson RL, Crounse RB, editors. Clinical dermatology. New York: Harper & Row; 1974. p. 1–5.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Wheeler GE, Barrows GH. Alopecia universalis, a manifestation of occult amyloidosis and multiple myeloma. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117:815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Leavell OW, Farley CH, Mcintyre JS. Cutaneous changes in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning. Arch Dermatol. 1969;99:429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Kahn G. Nail involvement in histiocytosis X. Arch Dermatol. 1969;100:699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Timpatanapong P, Hathirat P, Isarangkura P. Nail involvement in histiocytosis X. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120:1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Holzberg M, Wade TR, Buchana ID, et al. Nail pathology in histiocytosis X. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13:522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Harper JI, Staughton R. Histiocytosis X (letter). Cutis. 1983;31:493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Chesney PJ, Davis JP, Purdy WK, et al. Clinical manifestations of toxic shock syndrome. JAMA. 1981;246:741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Niemi KM, Kero M, Kanerva L, et al. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Arch Dermatol. 1983;119:138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Haber RM, Hanna W, Ramsey CA, et al. Hereditary epidermolysis bullosa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13:252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Main RA. Periodic shedding of the nails. Br J Dermatol. 1973;88:497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Palencia SI, Rodrigez-Peralto JL, Castano E, Vanaclocha F, Iglesias L. Lichenoid nail changes as sole external manifestation of graft vs. host disease. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:44–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Fujii K, Kanno Y, Ohgo N. Subungual hyperkeratosis due to sarcoidosis. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:123–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Kalb RE, Grossman ME. Pterygium formation due to sarcoidosis. Arch Dermatol. 1985;121:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Wakelin SH, James MP. Sarcoidosis: nail dystrophy with or without underlying bone changes. Cutis. 1995;55:344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Ahmed I, Cronk JS, Crutchfield CE, Dahl MV. Myeloma-associated systemic amyloidosis presenting as chronic paronychia and palmodigital erythematous swelling and induration of the hands. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:339–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Wong CK, Wang WJ. Systemic amyloidosis: a report of 19 cases. Dermatology. 1994;189:47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Dalziel KL, Telfer NR, Dawber RPR. Nail dystrophy in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol. 1989;120:571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Wilson AGM, Cotter FE, Lowe DG, et al. Mycosis fungoides in childhood: an unusual presentation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    de Berker D, Lever RK, Windebank K. Nail features in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Br J Dermatol. 1994;130:523–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Lynch PJ. Cutaneous signs of systemic malignancy. In: Sams WM, Lynch PJ, editors. Principles and practice of dermatology. New York: Churchill-Livingstone; 1996. p. 739–46.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Parameswara YR, Chinnappaiah RP. Onychomadesis associated with pemphigus vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117:759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Akiyama C, Sou K, Furuya T, et al. Paronychia. A sign heralding an exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;4.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Richards B. A radium fingernail polish. Wall Str J. 1983;72.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Horan MA, Puxty JA, Fox RA. The white nails of old age (neopolitan nails). J Am Geriatr Soc. 1982;30:734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Fischer VE. Subunguale verkalkungen. Fortschr Rontgenstr. 1982;137:580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Wong RC, Ellis CN. Physiological skin changes in pregnancy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;10:929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Hansen U, Haersley T, Knudsen B, Jacobson GK. Erythema elevation diutinum: case report showing an unusual distribution. Cutis. 1994;53:124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Basuck PJ, Scher RI. Onychomycosis in graft versus host disease. Cutis. 1987;40:237.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Noppakun N, Swasdikul D. Reversible hyperpigmentation of skin and nails with white hair due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Barth JH, Telfer MB, Dawber RPR. Nail abnormalities and autoimmunity. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Wieselthier JAS, Koh HK. Sezary syndrome: diagnosis, prognosis, critical review of options. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Tosti A, Fanti PA, Varotti C. Massive lymphomatosis nail involvement in Sezary syndrome. Dermatologica. 1990;181:162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Simon CA, Su WPD, Chin-Yang L. Subungual leukemia cutis. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Lassoued K, Picard C, Danon F, et al. Cutaneous manifestations associated with gamma heavy chain disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Harrison PV, Khunti K, Morris JA. Psoriatic nails, joints and autoimmunity (letter). Br J Dermatol. 1990;122:569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Novice F, editor. Handbook of genetic skin disorders. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Yaghmai R, et al. Overlap of dyskeratosis congenital with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. J Pediatr. 2000;136:390–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Swensson O. Pachyonychia congenital. Keratin gene mutation with pleiotropic effect. Hautarzt. 1999;50:483–90. [295a]. Bongers EM, Knoers NV. From gene to disease; the nail-patella syndrome and the LMXIB gene. Ned Tijdschr Geneeska. 2003;147(2):67–9.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Bardaro T, et al. Two cases of misinterpretation of molecular results in incontinentia pigmenti, and a PCR-based method to discriminate NEMO/IKK gamma gene deletion. Hum Mutat. 2003;21:8–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Berlin AL, Paller AS, Chan LS. Incontinentia pigmenti: a review and update on the molecular basis of pathophysiology. J Am Acad Dennatol. 2002;47:169–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Adeniran A, Townsend PL, Peachey RD. Incontinentia pigmenn (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) manifesting as painful periungual and subungual tumors. J Hand Surg (Br). 1993;18:667–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Nicolaou N, Graham-Brown RA. Nail dystrophy, an unusual presentation of incontinentia pigmenti. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:1286–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Kumari R, Jaisankar TJ, Thappa DM. A clinical study of skin changes in pregnancy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Rathore SP, Gupta S, Gupta V. Pattern and prevalence of physiological cutaneous changes in pregnancy: a study of 2000 antenatal women. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77(3):402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Wong RC, Ellis CN. Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;10:929–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Kroumpouzos G, Scher R. Hair and nail changes. In: Kroumpouzos G, editor. Text atlas of obstetric dermatology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins publishers; 2013. p. 39–46.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Martin AG, Leal-Khouri S. Physiologic skin changes associated with pregnancy. Int J Dermatol. 1992;31:375–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Muzaffar F, Hussain I, Haroon TS. Physiologic skin changes during pregnancy: a study of 140 cases. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:429–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Ponnapula D, Boberg JS. Lower extremity changes experienced during pregnancy. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2010;49:452–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Volterrani M, Rosano G, Coats A, et al. Estrogen acutely increases peripheral blood flow in postmenopausal women. Am J Med. 1995;99:119–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Graham-Brown RAC. Physiologic skin changes related to pregnancy. In: Champion RH, Burton JL, Burns DA, Breathnach SM, editors. Rook/Wilkinson/Ebling textbook of dermatology. 6th ed. London: Blackwell Science; 1998. p. 3269–70.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Hewitt D, Hillman RW. Relation between rate of nail growth in pregnant women and estimated previous general growth rate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1966;19:436–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Hillman RW. Fingernail growth in pregnancy: relations to some common parameters of the reproductive process. Hum Biol. 1960;32:119–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Block RA, Hess LA, Timpano EV, et al. Physiologic changes in the foot during pregnancy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1985;75:297–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Warraich QA, Cumming GP. Nail deformity in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:822–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Fryer JM, Werth VP. Pregnancy-associated hyperpigmentation: longitudinal melanonychia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(3):493–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Monteagudo B, Suárez O, Rodríguez I, et al. Longitudinal melanonychia in pregnancy. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2005;96:550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Muallem MM, Rubeiz NG. Physiological and biological skin changes in pregnancy. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24:80–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Chaudhry SI, Black MM. True transverse leukonychia with spontaneous resolution during pregnancy. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:1199–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Rutnin S, Nguyen JV, Miller CJ, DeHoratius D, Rubin AI. Pregnancy-associated acquired arteriovenous malformation of the nail unit: a novel cause of localized erythronychia. J Cutan Pathol. 2012;39:1030–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Lamas CC, Eykyn SJ. Suggested modifications to the Duke criteria for the clinical diagnosis of native valve and prosthetic valve endocarditis: analysis of 118 pathologically proven cases. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:713–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Silverman ME, Upshaw CB. Extracardiac manifestations of infective endocarditis and their historical descriptions. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:1802–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Ebtia M, Dewa DA. Infective endocarditis revisited: clinical manifestations and echocardiographic findings of patients with infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:E1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    van der Velden HMJ, Klaassen KMG, van de Kerkhof PCM, et al. Fingernail psoriasis reconsidered: a case–control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69:245–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Sandre MK, Rohekar S, Guenther L. Psoriatic nail changes are associated with clinical outcomes in psoriatic arthritis. J Cutan Med Surg. 2015;19:367–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Gisondi P, Idolazzi L, Girolomoni G. Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Arch Dermatol Res. 2012;304:727–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Belloni B, Schönewolf N, Rozati S, et al. Cutaneous drug eruptions associated with the use of new oncological drugs. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2012;97:191–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Autier J, Escudier B, Wechsler J, et al. Prospective study of the cutaneous adverse effects of sorafenib, a novel multikinase inhibitor. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:886–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Saladi RN, Persaud AN, Rudikoff D, et al. Idiopathic splinter hemorrhages. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:289–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Hardin J, Haber RM. Onychomadesis: literature review. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172(3):592–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Braswell MA, Daniel CR 3rd, Brodell RT. Beau lines, onychomadesis, and retronychia: a unifying hypothesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73(5):849–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Blomqvist S, Klemola P, Kaijalainen S, et al. Co-circulation of coxsackieviruses A6 and A10 in hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in Finland. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Zenke, et al. Nail findings in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a cross-sectional study with special reference to transverse grooves. JAAD. 2017;77:863–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Yadav TA, Khopkar US. Dermoscopy to detect signs of subclinical nail involvement in chronic plaque psoriasis: a study of 68 patients. Indian J Dermatol. 2015;60(3):272–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Walker J, Baran R, Vélez N, Jellinek N. Koilonychia: an update on pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and clinical relevance. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30(11):1985–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Spicknall KE, Zirwas MJ, English JC. Clubbing: an update on diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical relevance. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:1020–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Nakamura J, Halliday NA, Fukuba E, Radjenovic A, Tanner SF, Emery P, McGonagle D, Tan AL. The microanatomic basis of finger clubbing – a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. J Rheumatol. 2014;41(3):523–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Gold A, Bromberg B, Herbstritt J, Stein H. Digital clubbing: a unique case and a new hypothesis. J Hand Surg Am. 1979;4(1):60–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-5023(79)80106-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Baughman RP, Gunther KL, Buchsbaum JA, Lower EE. Prevalence of digital clubbing in bronchogenic carcinoma by a new digital index. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998;16:21–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Rutherford JD. Digital clubbing. Circulation. 2013;127:1997–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Callemeyn J, Van Haecke P, Peetermans WE, Blockmans D. Clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy: insights in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical significance. Acta Clin Belg. 2016;71(3):123–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Kalasekhar V, Venkatesh C. A constellation of nail changes in a child with Kawasaki disease. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(7):SJ01.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Piraccini BM, Rech G, Sisti A, Bellavista S. Twenty nail onychomadesis: an unusual finding in Cronkhite- Canada syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(1):172–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Prat C, Viñas M, Marcoval J, Jucglà A. Longitudinal melanonychia as the first sign of Addison’s disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(3):522–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Sánchez-Moreno EC, Marioni-Manriquez S, Fernández-Martínez RF, Moreno-Coutiño G. Accelerated nail growth rate in HIV patients. Int J Dermatol. 2017;56(5):524–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Rahav G, Maayan S. Nail pigmentation associated with zidovudine: a review and report of a case. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(5):557–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Jimenez-Gonzalez C, Mata-Marin JA, Arroyo-Anduiza CI, Ascencio-Montiel Ide J, Fuentes-Allen JL, Gaytan-Martinez J. Prevalence and etiology of onychomycosis in the HIV-infected Mexican population. Eur J Dermatol. 2013;23(3):378–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Surjushe A, Kamath R, Oberai C, Saple D, Thakre M, Dharmshale S, Gohil A. A clinical and mycological study of onychomycosis in HIV infection. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(6):397–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Zink BS, Valente L, Ortiz B, Caldas A, Jeunon T, Marques-da-Costa J. Periungual Bowen’s disease successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther. 2013;10(4):535–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Turowski CB, Ross AS, Cusack CA. And Human papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed in African-American patients. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48(2):117–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    De D, Dogra S, Narang T, Radotra BD, Kanwar AJ. Pityriasis rubra pilaris in a HIV-positive patient (type 6 PRP). Skinmed. 2008;7(1):47–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Bonomo RA, Korman N, Nagashima-Whalen L, Briggs J, Graham R, Salata RA. Review and pityriasis rubra pilaris: an unusual cutaneous complication of AIDS. Am J Med Sci. 1997;314(2):118–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Piraccini BM, Urciuoli B, Starace M, Tosti A, Balestri R. Yellow nail syndrome: clinical experience in a series of 21 patients. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2014;12(2):131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Decker A, Daly D, Scher RK. Role of titanium in the development of yellow nail syndrome. Skin Appendage Disord. 2015;1(1):28–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Baran R, Thomas L. Combination of fluconazole and alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of yellow nail syndrome. J Drug Dermatol. 2009;8(3):276–8.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Corominas H, Ortiz-Santamaría V. Nail fold capillaroscopic findings in primary Sjögren’s syndrome with and without Raynaud’s phenomenon and/or positive anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. Rheumatol Int. 2016;36(3):365–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Coskun BK. Reiter syndrome accompanied by Terry nail. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19(1):87–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Figueras-Nart I, Vicente A, Sánchez-Schmidt J, Jou-Muñoz C, Bordas-Orpinell X, Celis-Passini VP, Cruz-Martínez O, González-Ensenyat MA. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as fingernail changes. JAAD Case Rep. 2016;2(6):485–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Halteh P, Jorizzo JL, Lipner SR. Darier disease: candy-cane nails and hyperkeratotic papules. Postgrad Med J. 2016;92(1089):425–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shari R. Lipner
    • 1
  • Monica Lawry
    • 2
  • George Kroumpouzos
    • 3
    • 4
  • Richard K. Scher
    • 5
  • C. Ralph DanielIII
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyWeill Cornell MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologySutter Medical GroupDavisUSA
  3. 3.Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  4. 4.GK Dermatology, PCSouth WeymouthUSA
  5. 5.Weill Cornell Medicine/DermatologyNew York HospitalNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.University of Mississippi Medical Center, Dermatology & Surgery of the SkinJacksonUSA

Personalised recommendations