Advertisement

Of Heroes and Cowards: A Computer-Based Analysis of Narratives Justifying the Use of Force

  • Eric Sangar
  • Maéva Clément
  • Thomas Lindemann
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in International Relations book series (PSIR)

Abstract

How can we detect narratives that legitimize the use of force? Using the ‘hero-protector narrative’ as a theoretical model to understand how political leaders manufacture collective emotions when advocating the use of force as the only effective and morally acceptable option, we show how such an argument can be tested using computer-assisted narrative analysis. Based on a case study of political speeches and statements legitimizing-and others rejecting-the use of force in the context of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, we suggest that our methodology offers an innovative approach to uncover similarities (and differences) across narratives used to mobilize collective emotions of moral anger and compassion.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Parts of this chapter are based on the article “The “Hero-Protector Narrative”: Manufacturing Emotion al Consent for the Use of Force”, published by the authors in the journal Political Psychology, available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi?DOI=10.1111%2Fpops.12385. We thank the journal editors for their friendly permission to reuse some of the results presented in this article.

References

  1. Ahmed, S. (2004). The Cultural Politics of Emotion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, J. C. (2004). Cultural Pragmatics: Social Performance Between Ritual and Strategy. Sociological Theory, 22(4), 527–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anker, E. (2005). Villains, Victims and Heroes: Melodrama, Media, and September 11. Journal of Communication, 55(1), 22–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1999). Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(3), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barthes, R. (1977). Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives. In R. Barthes & S. Heath (Eds.), Image, Music, Text (pp. 79–124). London: Fontana.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, A. (2015). Found in Translation: Combining Discourse Analysis with Computer Assisted Content Analysis. Millennium – Journal of International Studies, 43(3), 984–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boltanski, L. (1993). La souffrance à distance: morale humanitaire, médias et politique. Paris: Editions Métailié.Google Scholar
  8. Brader, T., & Marcus, G. E. (2013). Emotion and Political Psychology. In L. Huddy, D. O. Sears, & J. S. Levy (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (pp. 165–204). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Butler, J. (2010). Frames of War: When Is Life Grievable? London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  10. Clément, M. (2014). Al-Muhajiroun in the United Kingdom: The Role of International Non-recognition in Heightened Radicalization Dynamics. Global Discourse, 4(4), 428–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evangelista, M. (2011). Gender, Nationalism, and War: Conflict on the Movie Screen. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical Discourse Analysis. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as Social Interaction (pp. 258–284). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Franzosi, R. (2010). Quantitative Narrative Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greene, J., & Haidt, J. (2002). How (and Where) Does Moral Judgment Work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(12), 517–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greimas, A. J. (1983). Structural Semantics: An Attempt at a Method. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hammack, P. L. (2014). Mind, Story, Society: The Political Psychology of Narrative. In M. Hanne, W. D. Crano, & J. S. Mio (Eds.), Warring with Words: Narrative and Metaphor in Politics (pp. 51–77). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hammack, P. L., & Pilecki, A. (2014). Methodological Approaches in Political Psychology: Discourse and Narrative. In P. Nesbitt-Larking, C. Kinnvall, T. Capelos, & H. Dekker (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Global Political Psychology (pp. 72–89). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  18. Jasper, J. M. (2006). The Study of Emotion: An Introduction. In S. Clarke, P. Hoggett, & S. Thompson (Eds.), Emotion, Politics and Society (pp. 3–30). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Kaufman, S. J. (2001). Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Koschut, S. (2014). Emotional (Security) Communities: The Significance of Emotion Norms in Inter-allied Conflict Management. Review of International Studies, 40(3), 533–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lebow, R. N. (2010). Why Nations Fight: Past and Future Motives for War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lindemann, T. (2010). Causes of War: The Struggle for Recognition. Colchester: ECPR Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ling, L. H. M. (2014). Decolonizing the International: Towards Multiple Emotional Worlds. International Theory, 6(3), 579–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Linklater, A. (2007). Distant Suffering and Cosmopolitan Obligations. International Politics, 44(1), 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Linklater, A. (2014). Anger and World Politics: How Collective Emotions Shift Over Time. International Theory, 6(3), 574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lukács, G. (1971). The Theory of the Novel: A Historico-Philosophical Essay on the Forms of Great Epic Literature. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.Google Scholar
  27. Mackie, D. M., Devos, T., & Smith, E. R. (2000). Intergroup Emotions: Explaining Offensive Action Tendencies in an Intergroup Context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(4), 602–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Neuendorf, K. A. (2005). The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Nussbaum, M. (1996). Compassion: The Basic Social Emotion. Social Philosophy and Policy, 13(1), 27–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Petersen, R. D. (Ed.). (2011). Western Intervention in the Balkans: The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Pronk, J., Olthof, T., & Goossens, F. A. (2016). Factors Influencing Interventions on Behalf of Victims of Bullying: A Counterfactual Approach to the Social Cognitions of Outsiders and Defenders. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 36(2), 267–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Propp, V. (2010 [1968]). Morphology of the Folktale. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ringmar, E. (2006). Inter-texual Relations: The Quarrel Over the Iraq War as a Conflict Between Narrative Types. Cooperation and Conflict, 41(4), 403–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sudhahar, S., Franzosi, R., & Cristianini, N. (2011). Automating Quantitative Narrative Analysis of News Data. Paper Presented at the WAPA Conference, 2nd Workshop on Applications of Pattern Analysis.Google Scholar
  35. Thompson, S. (2006). Anger and the Struggle for Justice. In S. Clarke, P. Hoggett, & S. Thompson (Eds.), Emotion, Politics and Society (pp. 123–144). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Toolan, M. J. (1988). Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Ugazio, G., Majdandžic, J., & Lamm, C. (2014). Are Empathy and Morality Linked? In H. L. Maibom (Ed.), Empathy and Morality (pp. 155–171). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Weizman, E. (2011). The Least of All Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza. London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  39. Willig, C. (2014). Discourses and Discourse Analysis. In U. Flick (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (pp. 341–354). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Sangar
    • 1
  • Maéva Clément
    • 2
  • Thomas Lindemann
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.FNRS / University of NamurNamurBelgium
  2. 2.Helmut Schmidt UniversityHamburgGermany
  3. 3.University of Versailles-St QuentinVersaillesFrance
  4. 4.Ecole PolytechniquePalaiseauFrance

Personalised recommendations