Migration, Diaspora and Communication

  • Karim H. Karim


Migrants to Europe find themselves in a continent that is undergoing considerable shifts in its political and cultural character. The dominant tendency of Europeans is to view their countries as constituted by sedentary indigenous populations. An informed understanding of history reveals that both Europe and European states are cultural constructions that have shifted over time and continue to change. The arrival of migrants is not an anomaly but an ongoing unfolding of the historical patterns of the movements of people across the world. European ventures in other continents during the colonial period and in the present have a lot to do with the contemporary arrival of formerly colonized peoples in Europe. These are the contexts of the contemporary media discourses of migrants in which they are negotiating their identities both as European and as African, Asian or American.


  1. Agence France Presse. (2015, 17 October). Islam was ‘Never Part of Europe’: Hungary’s Victor Orban. NDTV. Retrieved on October 28, 2017, from
  2. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Blaut, J. M. (2012). The colonizer’s model of the world: Geographical diffusionism and Eurocentric history. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Breckenridge, C., Pollock, S., Bhabha, H., & Chakrabarty, D. (Eds.). (2002). Cosmopolitanism. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Browne, D. R. (2005). Ethnic minorities, electronic media and the public sphere: A comparative study. Cresskill: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cantor, N. F. (1993). The civilization of the middle ages. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  9. Chin, R. (2017). The crisis of multiculturalism in Europe: A history. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clifford, J. (1997). Routes: Travel and translation in the late twentieth century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cornell, S., & Hartmann, D. (2007). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  12. Daniels, R. (2005). Guarding the golden door: American immigration policy and immigrants since 1882. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Dufoix, S. (2008). Diasporas. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egerer, C. (2001). Ambivalent geographies: The exotic as domesticated other. Third Text, 55, 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ewing, K. P. (2003). Living Islam in the diaspora: Between Turkey and Germany. South Atlantic Quarterly, 102(2/3), 405–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goodwin, M., Raines, T., & Cutts, D. (2017, February 7). What do Europeans think about Muslim immigration? Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved August 2, 2017, from
  17. Hargreaves, A. G., & Mahdjoub, D. (1997). Satellite television viewing among ethnic minorities in France. European Journal of Communication, 12(4), 459–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heater, D. (1999). What is citizenship? London: Polity.Google Scholar
  19. Helleiner, J., & Szuchewycz, B. (1997). Discourses of exclusion: The Irish press and the travelling people. In S. Riggins (Ed.), The language and politics of exclusion: Others in discourse (pp. 109–130). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Hobson, J. M. (2014). The clash of civilizations 2.0: Race and eurocentrism, imperialism and anti-imperialism. In M. Eid & K. H. Karim (Eds.), Re-imagining the other: Culture, media and western-Muslim intersections (pp. 75–97). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Joseph, M. (1996). Nomadic identities: The performance of citizenship. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  22. Karim, K. H. (2003). Mapping diasporic mediascapes. In K. H. Karim (Ed.), The media of diaspora (pp. 1–17). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Karim, K. H. (2011). Muslim migration, institutional development and geographic imagination: The Aga Khan development network’s transnationalism. In J. DeBardeleben & A. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Transnational Europe (pp. 205–221). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kolar-Panov, D. (2003). Video and the Macedonians in Australia. In K. H. Karim (Ed.), The media of diaspora (pp. 105–118). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Kuter, L. (1990). Breton vs. French: Language and the opposition of political, economic, social, and cultural values. In N. C. Dorian (Ed.), Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Manning, P., & Trimmer, T. (2013). Migration in world history. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Menache, S. (Ed.). (1996). Communication in the Jewish diaspora: The pre-modern world. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  29. Noack, R. (2015, December 16). Why Germany’s Merkel will continue to welcome refugees, despite calling multiculturalism a sham. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 6, 2017, from
  30. Ong, A. (1999). Flexible citizenship. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Oucho, J. O. (2002). Undercurrents of ethnic conflicts in Kenya. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  32. Parekh, B. (2000). Rethinking multiculturalism: Cultural diversity and political theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ray, M. (2003). Nation, nostalgia and Bollywood: In the tracks of a twice-displaced community. In K. H. Karim (Ed.), The media of diaspora (pp. 21–35). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Renan, E. (1990). What is nation? In H. Bhabha (Ed.), Nation and narration (pp. 8–22). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Sassen, S. (1996). Losing control? Sovereignty in an age of globalization. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sen, A. (2006). Identity and violence: The illusion of destiny. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, A. D. (1989). The origins of nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 12(3), 340–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, T. (2000). Foreign attachments: The power of ethnic groups in making of American foreign policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Strassler, R. B. (Ed.). (2009). The landmark Herodotus: The histories. New York: Anchor.Google Scholar
  40. Stratton, J., & Ang, I. (1996). On the impossibility of a global cultural studies. InStuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 361–391). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Symanski, R., Manners, I. R., & Bromley, R. J. (1975). The mobile-sedentary continuum. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 65(3), 461–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Taylor, C. (1992). Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Thussu, D. (1992). The transnationalization of television: The Indian experience. In J. K. Chalaby (Ed.), Transnational television worldwide: Towards a new media order (pp. 156–172). London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  44. UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). (2015). UNHCR global trends: Forced displacement in 2014 —World at war. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karim H. Karim
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Journalism and CommunicationCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations