Advertisement

White Subjectivities, the Arts, and Power in Colonial Canada: Classical Music as White Property

  • Lise C. Vaugeois
Chapter

Abstract

The author presents a genealogy of gendered and raced relations of power in the development of classical music institutions in colonial Canada, noting how institutions come to be established, symbolically and materially, as White property within a patriarchal, White supremacist framework. The author focuses on the roles of White bourgeois women in proliferating classical music institutions, noting how gendered identities constrain their possibilities, while raced and classed identities allow them to attain status as exalted members of the nation. The genealogy illustrates a persistent relationship between exalted White identities, notions of “the arts” as signifiers of “civilizational superiority,” and their uses to rationalize material entitlement and its corollaries: dispossession, domination, and exploitation. Political and pedagogical implications of the analysis close the chapter.

Keywords

Bourgeois identities Canadian colonialism Critical race theory Cultural capital Cultural studies Culture and colonialism Culture and imperialism Culture and racism Exaltation Foucault Genealogy Multiculturalism Music education Post-colonial feminist studies Subject formation Western classical music White identities White settler state White supremacy Whiteness studies 

References

  1. Backhouse, C. (1991). Petticoats and prejudice: Women and law in nineteenth century Canada. Toronto, ON: Women’s Press (The Osgoode Society).Google Scholar
  2. Backhouse, C. (1999). Colour-coded: A legal history of racism in Canada, 1900–1950. Toronto, ON: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bannerji, H. (1997). Geography lessons: On being an insider/outsider to the Canadian nation. In L. Roman & L. Eyre (Eds.), Dangerous territories: Struggles for difference and equality (pp. 23–41). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Bannerji, H. (2000). The dark side of the nation: Essays on multiculturalism, nationalism and gender. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Barman, J. (2006). Taming aboriginal sexuality: Gender, power, and race in British Columbia, 1850–1900. In M. E. Kelm & L. Townsend (Eds.), In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in aboriginal women’s history in Canada (pp. 270–300). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  6. Berger, C. (1966). The true north strong and free. In P. Russell (Ed.), Nationalism in Canada (pp. 2–26). Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  7. Blair, K. J. (1994). The torchbearers: Women and their amateur arts associations in America, 1890–1930. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blair, P. J. (2008). Lament for a first nation. The Williams treaties of Southern Ontario. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, P. (1993). The field of cultural production. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bridle, A. (1945). The arts & letters club: The story of the club. Toronto, ON: Ryerson Press.Google Scholar
  12. Catungal, J. P., & Leslie, D. (2009). Contesting the creative city: Race, nation, multiculturalism. Geoforum, 40(5/6), 701–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Citron, M. J. (1993). Gender and the musical canon. New York/Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cooper, A. (2006). The hanging of Angelique. The untold story of Canadian slavery and the burning of old Montreal. Toronto, ON: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  15. Crosby, M. (1991). Construction of the imaginary Indian. In S. Douglas (Ed.), Vancouver anthology (pp. 267–292). Vancouver, BC: Talon Books.Google Scholar
  16. Crown. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/crown/
  17. Curtis, B. (1988). Building the educational state: Canada West, 1836–1871. London, ON: The Althouse Press.Google Scholar
  18. Daschuk, J. (2014). Clearing the plains: Disease, politics of starvation, and the loss of aboriginal life. Regina, SK: University of Regina Press.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, A. Y. (1981). Women, race and class. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  20. Deneault, A., Abadie, D., Denis, M., Ducharme, P., Ficner, C., Gill, D., & Sacher, W. (2010). Imperial Canada (F. A. Reed & R. Philpot, Trans. Vol. 2010). Vancouver, BC: Talonbooks.Google Scholar
  21. Dickason, O. P. (1992). Canada’s first nations: A history of founding peoples from earliest times. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dirks, N. B. (1992). Colonialism and culture. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dixon, A. D., & Rousseau Anderson, C. K. (2017). And we are still not saved. In A. D. Dixon, C. K. Rousseau Anderson, & J. K. Donner (Eds.), Critical race theory in education (pp. 32–54). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Dua, E. (1999). Beyond diversity: Exploring the ways in which the discourse of race has shaped the institution of the nuclear family. In E. Dua & A. Robertson (Eds.), Scratching the surface: Canadian anti-racist feminist thought. Toronto, ON: Women’s Press.Google Scholar
  25. Elliott, R. (1997). Counterpoint to a city. A history of the Women’s Musical Club of Canada. Toronto, ON: ECW Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth (C. Farrington, Trans.). New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fiske, J.-A. (2006). Political status of native Indian women: Contradictory implications of Canadian state policy. In M.-E. Kelm & L. Townsend (Eds.), In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in aboriginal women’s history in Canada (pp. 336–366). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  28. Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class...And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community, and everyday life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. Foucault, M. (1972). The discourse on language [Appendix] (A. M. S. Smith, Trans.). The archeology of knowledge and the discourse on language (pp. 215–237). New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  30. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish. The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  31. Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. In H. L. Dreyfus & P. Rabinow (Eds.), Michel Foucault: Beyond structuralism and hermeneutics (pp. 208–226). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Foucault, M. (2000). The subject and power (R. Hurley, Trans.). In J. D. Faubion (Ed.), Power (Vol. 3). New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  33. Francis, D. (1992). The imaginary Indian: The image of the Indian in Canadian culture. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press.Google Scholar
  34. Goldberg, D. T. (1993). Racist culture: Philosophy and the politics of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  35. Gordon, T. (2010). Imperialist Canada. Winnipeg, MB: Arbeiter Ring.Google Scholar
  36. Green, P. J., & Vogan, N. (1991). Music education in Canada. A historical account. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kipling, R. (1899). The white man’s burden: The United States & the Philippine Islands, 1989. History matters. The U.S. survey course on the web: Rudyard Kipling’s verse: Definitive Edition. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1929.Google Scholar
  38. Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a “nice” field like education? Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leppert, R. (1993). The sight of sound: Music, representation, and the history of the body. Berkeley, CA/London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Levine, L. (1988). Highbrow/lowbrow: The emergence of cultural hierarchy in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Lott, E. (1993). Love and theft. Blackface minstrelsy and the American working class. New York/Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Mackey, E. (2002). The house of difference: Cultural politics and national identity in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  43. MacMillan, E. (1997). Problems of music in Canada. In C. Morey (Ed.), MacMillan on music (pp. 77–92). Toronto, ON: Dundurn Press.Google Scholar
  44. MacMillan, E., & Scott, D. C. (1928). Three songs of the West coast. London: The Frederick Harris Company.Google Scholar
  45. Marshall, T., & Cruikshank, D. A. (2015). Persons case. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/persons-case/
  46. McBurney, M. (2007). The great adventure. 100 years at the arts and letters club. Toronto, ON: Arts and Letters Club of Toronto.Google Scholar
  47. McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial leather: Race, gender and sexuality in the colonial contest. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Memmi, A. (1965). The colonizer and the colonized. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  49. Mohanram, R. (1999). Black body. Women, colonialism, and space. Minneapolis, MN/London: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  50. Neu, D., & Therrien, R. (2003). Accounting for genocide: Canada’s bureaucratic assault on aboriginal people. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Nurse, A. (2001). “But now things have changed”: Marius Barbeau and the politics of Amerindian identity. Ethnohistory, 48(3), 433–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Phillips, R. (1997). Mapping men and empire. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Prentice, A. L., & Houston, S. E. (Eds.). (1975). Family, school and society in nineteenth-century Canada. Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Razack, S. (2002). When place becomes race. In S. H. Razack (Ed.), Race, space, and the law. Unmapping a White settler society (pp. 1–20). Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  55. Razack, S. (2015). Dying from improvement: Inquests and inquiries into indigenous deaths in custody. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  56. Razack, S., Smith, M., & Thobani, S. (Eds.). (2010). States of race. Critical race feminism for the 21st century. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  57. Saïd, E. (1982). Opponents, audiences, constituencies, and community. Critical Inquiry, 9, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saïd, E. (1993). Culture and imperialism. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  59. Sangster, J. (2006). Native women, sexuality, and the law. In M.-E. Kelm & L. Townsend (Eds.), In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in aboriginal women’s history in Canada (pp. 301–335). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  60. Schabas, E. (1994). Sir Ernest MacMillan: The importance of being Canadian. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  61. Sernau, S. R. (2017). Social inequality in a global age (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  62. Smith, A. (2005). Conquest: Sexual violence and American Indian genocide. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.Google Scholar
  63. Stamp, R. (1984). A history of private school in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Commission on Private Schools in Ontario.Google Scholar
  64. Stevenson, W. (1999). Colonialism and first nations women in Canada. In E. Dua & A. Robertson (Eds.), Scratching the surface: Canadian anti-racist feminist thought (pp. 49–82). Toronto, ON: Women’s Press.Google Scholar
  65. Stoler, A. L. (1989). Making empire respectable: The politics of race and sexual morality in 20th-century colonial cultures. American Ethnologist, 16(4), 634–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stoler, A. L. (1995). Race and the education of desire. Foucault’s history of sexuality and the colonial order of things. Durham, NC/London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Stoler, A. L. (1997). Making empire respectable: The politics of race and sexual morality in twentieth-century colonial cultures. In A. McClintock, A. Mufti, & E. Shohat (Eds.), Dangerous liasons: Gender, nation, & postcolonial perspectives (pp. 344–373). Minneapolis, MN: The University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  68. Thobani, S. (2007). Exalted subjects. Studies in the making of race and nation in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  69. Tippett, M. (1990). Making culture. English-Canadian institutions and the arts before the Massey Commission. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  70. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Final report of the truth and reconciliation commission of Canada. Volume one: Summary. Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future. Toronto, ON: James Lorimer & Company.Google Scholar
  71. Van Kirk, S. (1980). Many tender ties: Women in the fur-trade society, 1670–1870. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  72. Van Kirk, S. (2006). Colonized lives: The native wives and daughters of five founding families of Victoria. In M.-E. Kelm & L. Townsend (Eds.), In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in aboriginal women’s history in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  73. Vancouver, Status of Women Feminist Working Group. (2008). History in our faces on occupied land: A race relations timeline. Retrieved from http://www.vsw.ca/Documents/RRTimelineJune10thFINAL.pdf
  74. Vaugeois, L. (2012). “With whose blood have my eyes been crafted?” Middle class frameworks as barriers to social justice. In A. De Quatros & A. J. Palmer (Eds.), Tanglewood II. Summoning the future of music education (pp. 147–153). Chicago: GIA Publications.Google Scholar
  75. Walter, A. (1969). Aspects of music in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  76. Weber, W. (1992). The rise of musical classics in eighteenth-century England: A study in canon, ritual, and ideology. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  77. Whitesitt, L. (1997). Women as “Keepers of Culture”: Music clubs, community concert series, and symphony orchestras. In R. P. Locke & C. Barr (Eds.), Cultivating music in America: Women patrons and activists since 1860 (pp. 65–89). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  78. Williams, R. (1983). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Wolff, J. (1987). The ideology of autonomous art. In R. Leppert & S. McClary (Eds.), Music and society: The politics of composition, performance and reception (pp. 1–12). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lise C. Vaugeois
    • 1
  1. 1.Lakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

Personalised recommendations