Advertisement

Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations with Cyanoacrylate

  • Matthew D. Alexander
  • Daniel L. Cooke
  • Steven W. Hetts
Chapter

Abstract

Embolization of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with acrylates can play an important role in treating these complex lesions. Embolization can be performed with an acceptable safety profile when utilizing proper planning and technique. Heterogeneity among these lesions and treatment decisions and techniques vary dramatically between treating physicians and medical centers. Reported general complication rates vary from 1 to 16%, with permanent morbidity rates of 0.4–12.5% and mortality rates of 0.4–11% [1–21]. Within these reports, rates of ischemic complications range from 0.7 to12.5% [2, 7, 20, 22]. Reported hemorrhage rates range from 2 to 15% [2, 7, 14, 20, 22, 23]. These publications reflect large case series employing different embolic agents, including acrylates, and they reflect a mix of modern and discontinued techniques with higher rates of complication compared to current methods [3].

References

  1. 1.
    Debrun G, Vinuela F, Fox A, Drake CG. Embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations with bucrylate. J Neurosurg. 1982;56(5):615–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deruty R, Pelissou-Guyotat I, Amat D, et al. Complications after multidisciplinary treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Acta Neurochir. 1996;138(2):119–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Frizzel RT, Fisher WS III. Cure, morbidity, and mortality associated with embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: a review of 1246 patients in 32 series over a 35-year period. Neurosurgery. 1995;37(6):1031–9. Discussion 1039–1040.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gobin YP, Laurent A, Merienne L, et al. Treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations by embolization and radiosurgery. J Neurosurg. 1996;85(1):19–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hartmann A, Mast H, Mohr JP, et al. Morbidity of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Stroke. 1998;29(5):931–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hartmann A, Mast H, Mohr JP, et al. Determinants of staged endovascular and surgical treatment outcome of brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2005;36(11):2431–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jafar JJ, Davis AJ, Berenstein A, Choi IS, Kupersmith MJ. The effect of embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate prior to surgical resection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(1):60–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jahan R, Murayama Y, Gobin YP, Duckwiler GR, Vinters HV, Vinuela F. Embolization of arteriovenous malformations with Onyx: clinicopathological experience in 23 patients. Neurosurgery. 2001;48(5):984–95. Discussion 995–987.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jayaraman MV, McTaggart RA, Sachs GM, Doberstein CE. Cerebellar pial arteriovenous malformations presenting with medullary venous hypertension: imaging and endovascular treatment. J NeuroInterv Surg. 2010;2(1):38–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lasjaunias P, Manelfe C, Chiu M. Angiographic architecture of intracranial vascular malformations and fistulas—pretherapeutic aspects. Neurosurg Rev. 1986;9(4):253–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ledezma CJ, Hoh BL, Carter BS, Pryor JC, Putman CM, Ogilvy CS. Complications of cerebral arteriovenous malformation embolization: multivariate analysis of predictive factors. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(4):602–11. Discussion 602–611.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meisel HJ, Mansmann U, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Brock M, Lasjaunias P. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and associated aneurysms: analysis of 305 cases from a series of 662 patients. Neurosurgery. 2000;46(4):793–800. Discussion 800–792.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meisel HJ, Mansmann U, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Brock M, Lasjaunias P. Effect of partial targeted N-butyl-cyano-acrylate embolization in brain AVM. Acta Neurochir. 2002;144(9):879–87. Discussion 888.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Picard L, Da Costa E, Anxionnat R, et al. Acute spontaneous hemorrhage after embolization of brain arteriovenous malformation with N-butyl cyanoacrylate. J Neuroradiol. 2001;28(3):147–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Picard L, Moret J, Lepoire J, et al. Endovascular treatment of intracerebral arteriovenous angiomas. Technique, indications and results. J Neuroradiol. 1984;11(1):9–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steiger HJ, Bruckmann H, Mayer T, Schmid-Elsaesser R, Zausinger S. Congested residual nidus after preoperative intranidal embolization in midsize cerebral arteriovenous malformations of 3-6 cm in diameter. Acta Neurochir. 2004;146(7):649–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor CL, Dutton K, Rappard G, et al. Complications of preoperative embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(5):810–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vinuela F, Dion JE, Duckwiler G, et al. Combined endovascular embolization and surgery in the management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: experience with 101 cases. J Neurosurg. 1991;75(6):856–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wikholm G, Lundqvist C, Svendsen P. Embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: part I—technique, morphology, and complications. Neurosurgery. 1996;39(3):448–57. Discussion 457–449.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jayaraman MV, Marcellus ML, Do HM, et al. Hemorrhage rate in patients with Spetzler-Martin grades IV and V arteriovenous malformations: is treatment justified? Stroke. 2007;38(2):325–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Beijnum J, van der Worp HB, Buis DR, et al. Treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011;306(18):2011–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lv X, Wu Z, Jiang C, et al. Complication risk of endovascular embolization for cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Eur J Radiol. 2011;80(3):776–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iwama T, Yoshimura K, Keller E, et al. Emergency craniotomy for intraparenchymal massive hematoma after embolization of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2003;53(6):1251–8. Discussion 1258–1260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Nelson J, et al. Association between venous angioarchitectural features of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations and intracranial hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015;36(5):949–52.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gross BA, Du R. Natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2013;118(2):437–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim H, Al-Shahi Salman R, McCulloch CE, Stapf C, Young WL, Coinvestigators M. Untreated brain arteriovenous malformation: patient-level meta-analysis of hemorrhage predictors. Neurology. 2014;83(7):590–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mohr JP, Parides MK, Stapf C, et al. Medical management with or without interventional therapy for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA): a multicentre, non-blinded, randomised trial. Lancet. 2014;383(9917):614–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heit JJ, Faisal AG, Telischak NA, Choudhri O, Do HM. Headway Duo microcatheter for cerebral arteriovenous malformation embolization with n-BCA. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016;8(11):1181–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Katsaridis V, Papagiannaki C, Aimar E. Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations for cure: because we could and because we should. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(5):e67. Author reply e68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lv X, Wu Z, Jiang C, et al. Endovascular treatment accounts for a change in brain arteriovenous malformation natural history risk. Interv Neuroradiol. 2010;16(2):127–32.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Natarajan SK, Born D, Ghodke B, Britz GW, Sekhar LN. Histopathological changes in brain arteriovenous malformations after embolization using Onyx or N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2009;111(1):105–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Panagiotopoulos V, Gizewski E, Asgari S, Regel J, Forsting M, Wanke I. Embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (onyx). AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(1):99–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stefani MA, Porter PJ, terBrugge KG, Montanera W, Willinsky RA, Wallace MC. Large and deep brain arteriovenous malformations are associated with risk of future hemorrhage. Stroke. 2002;33(5):1220–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    van Rooij WJ, Sluzewski M, Beute GN. Brain AVM embolization with onyx. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28(1):172–7. Discussion 178.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weber W, Kis B, Siekmann R, Kuehne D. Endovascular treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations with onyx: technical aspects. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28(2):371–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Management of vascular perforations that occur during neurointerventional procedures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991;12(2):319–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sinha PK, Neema PK, Rathod RC. Anesthesia and intracranial arteriovenous malformation. Neurol India. 2004;52(2):163–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    al-Rodhan NR, Sundt TM Jr, Piepgras DG, Nichols DA, Rufenacht D, Stevens LN. Occlusive hyperemia: a theory for the hemodynamic complications following resection of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(2):167–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miyasaka Y, Yada K, Ohwada T, et al. Hemorrhagic venous infarction after excision of an arteriovenous malformation: case report. Neurosurgery. 1991;29(2):265–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nornes H, Grip A. Hemodynamic aspects of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 1980;53(4):456–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wilson CB, Hieshima G. Occlusive hyperemia: a new way to think about an old problem. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(2):165–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barnett GH, Little JR, Ebrahim ZY, Jones SC, Friel HT. Cerebral circulation during arteriovenous malformation operation. Neurosurgery. 1987;20(6):836–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Day AL, Friedman WA, Sypert GW, Mickle JP. Successful treatment of the normal perfusion pressure breakthrough syndrome. Neurosurgery. 1982;11(5):625–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leblanc R, Little JR. Hemodynamics of arteriovenous malformations. Clin Neurosurg. 1990;36:299–317.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nagao S, Ueta K, Mino S, et al. Monitoring of cortical blood flow during excision of arteriovenous malformation by thermal diffusion method. Surg Neurol. 1989;32(2):137–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spetzler RF, Wilson CB, Weinstein P, Mehdorn M, Townsend J, Telles D. Normal perfusion pressure breakthrough theory. Clin Neurosurg. 1978;25:651–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Albert P. Personal experience in the treatment of 178 cases of arteriovenous malformations of the brain. Acta Neurochir. 1982;61(1–3):207–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Albert P, Salgado H, Polaina M, Trujillo F, Ponce de Leon A, Durand F. A study on the venous drainage of 150 cerebral arteriovenous malformations as related to haemorrhagic risks and size of the lesion. Acta Neurochir. 1990;103(1–2):30–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Hallam DK, Kim H, Hetts SW, Ghodke BV. Less can be more: targeted embolization of aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations unsuitable for surgical resection. Interv Neuroradiol. 2016;22(4):445–51.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bai J, Dou CW, Wang YJ, et al. Correlations of angio-architectural factors with cerebral arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage. Natl Med J China. 2012;92(31):2202–4.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beltramello A, Ricciardi GK, Piovan E, et al. Operative classification of brain arteriovenous malformation. Part two: validation. Interv Neuroradiol. 2009;15(3):266–74.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cellerini M, Mangiafico S, Villa G, et al. Cerebral microarteriovenous malformations: diagnostic and therapeutic features in a series of patients. Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23(6):945–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dos Santos MLT, Demartini Z Jr, Matos LAD, et al. Angioarchitecture and clinical presentation of brain arteriovenous malformations. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67(2 A):316–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Duong DH, Young WL, Vang MC, et al. Feeding artery pressure and venous drainage pattern are primary determinants of hemorrhage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 1998;29(6):1167–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hsieh SC, Liu HM. Angioarchitecture in predicting the bleeding risk of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Chin J Radiol. 1999;24(6):223–6.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ji Y, Ding X, Wang ZG. Analysis of relevant factors of cerebral arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage. Natl Med J China. 2012;92(35):2488–90.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kader A, Young WL, Pile-Spellman J, et al. The influence of hemodynamic and anatomic factors on hemorrhage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 1994;34(5):801–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kandai S, Abdullah MS, Naing NN. Angioarchitecture of brain arteriovenous malformations and the risk of bleeding: an analysis of patients in northeastern Malaysia. Malays J Med Sci. 2010;17(1):44–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Khaw AV, Mohr JP, Sciacca RR, et al. Association of infratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations with hemorrhage at initial presentation. Stroke. 2004;35(3):660–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kubalek R, Moghtaderi A, Klisch J, Berlis A, Quiske A, Schumacher M. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: influence of angioarchitecture on bleeding risk. Acta Neurochir. 2003;145(12):1045–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kubalek R, Yin L, Fronhöfer G, Schumacher M. Cerebral arterio-venous malformations: correlation between the angioarchitecture and the bleeding risk. Arteriovenöse malformationen des gehirns: Einflüsse der angioarchitektur auf das blutungsrisiko. 2001;11(2):97–104.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Langer DJ, Lasner TM, Hurst RW, Flamm ES, Zager EL, King JT Jr. Hypertension, small size, and deep venous drainage are associated with risk of hemorrhagic presentation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 1998;42(3):481–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lv X, Wu Z, Jiang C, et al. Angioarchitectural characteristics of brain arteriovenous malformations with and without hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. 2011;76(1–2):95–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marks MP, Lane B, Steinberg GK, Chang PJ. Hemorrhage in intracerebral arteriovenous malformations: angiographic determinants. Radiology. 1990;176(3):807–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mast H, Young WL, Koennecke HC, et al. Risk of spontaneous haemorrhage after diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Lancet. 1997;350(9084):1065–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Miyasaka Y, Kurata A, Irikura K, Tanaka R, Fujii K. The influence of vascular pressure and angiographic characteristics on haemorrhage from arteriovenous malformations. Acta Neurochir. 2000;142(1):39–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Miyasaka Y, Tanaka R, Kurata A, et al. The factors influencing haematoma volume due to arteriovenous malformations. Acta Neurochir. 1999;141(4):385–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miyasaka Y, Yada K, Ohwada T, Kitahara T, Kurata A, Irikura K. An analysis of the venous drainage system as a factor in hemorrhage from arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 1992;76(2):239–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nataf F, Meder JF, Roux FX, et al. Angioarchitecture associated with haemorrhage in cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a prognostic statistical model. Neuroradiology. 1997;39(1):52–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Niu H, Cao Y, Wang X, et al. Relationships between hemorrhage, angioarchitectural factors and collagen of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosci Bull. 2012;28(5):595–05.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pasqualin A. Natural history of cerebral AVM. Epidemiologia e storia naturale delle MAV cerebrali. 2002;15(1):29–40.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pasqualin A, Barone G, Cioffi F, Rosta L, Scienza R, Da Pian R. The relevance of anatomic and hemodynamic factors to a classification of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 1991;28(3):370–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pollock BE, Flickinger JC. A proposed radiosurgery-based grading system for arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2002;96(1):79–85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pollock BE, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DJ, Kondziolka D. Factors that predict the bleeding risk of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 1996;27(1):1–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Spears J, TerBrugge KG, Moosavian M, et al. A discriminative prediction model of neurological outcome for patients undergoing surgery of brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2006;37(6):1457–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stapf C, Mast H, Sciacca RR, et al. Predictors of hemorrhage in patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformation. Neurology. 2006;66(9):1350–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stefani MA, Porter PJ, TerBrugge KG, Montanera W, Willinsky RA, Wallace MC. Angioarchitectural factors present in brain arteriovenous malformations associated with hemorrhagic presentation. Stroke. 2002;33(4):920–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stiver SI, Ogilvy CS. Micro-arteriovenous malformations: significant hemorrhage from small arteriovenous shunts. Neurosurgery. 2000;46(4):811–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vinuela F, Nombela L, Roach MR, Fox AJ, Pelz DM. Stenotic and occlusive disease of the venous drainage system of deep brain AVM's. J Neurosurg. 1985;63(2):180–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yamada S, Takagi Y, Nozaki K, Kikuta KI, Hashimoto N. Risk factors for subsequent hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2007;107(5):965–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Inci S, Ozcan OE, Benli K, Saatci I. Microsurgical removal of a free segment of microcatheter in the anterior circulation as a complication of embolization. Surg Neurol. 1996;46(6):562–6. Discussion 566–567.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kallmes DF, McGraw JK, Evans AJ, et al. Thrombogenicity of hydrophilic and nonhydrophilic microcatheters and guiding catheters. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18(7):1243–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Partington CR, Graves VB, Rufenacht DA, et al. Biocompatibility of 1-French polyethylene catheters used in interventional neuroradiology procedures: a study with rats and dogs. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990;11(5):881–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Smith TP, Graves VB, Halbach VV, et al. Microcatheter retrieval device for intravascular foreign body removal. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993;14(4):809–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Altschul D, Paramasivam S, Ortega-Gutierrez S, Fifi JT, Berenstein A. Safety and efficacy using a detachable tip microcatheter in the embolization of pediatric arteriovenous malformations. Childs Nerv Syst. 2014;30(6):1099–107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Paramasivam S, Altschul D, Ortega-Gutiarrez S, Fifi J, Berenstein A. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization using a detachable tip microcatheter: initial experience. J Neurointerv Surg. 2015;7(6):458–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Berthelsen B, Lofgren J, Svendsen P. Embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations with bucrylate. Experience in a first series of 29 patients. Acta Radiol. 1990;31(1):13–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Biondi A, Le Jean L, Capelle L, Duffau H, Marsault C. Fatal hemorrhagic complication following endovascular treatment of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Case report and review of the literature. J Neuroradiol. 2006;33(2):96–104.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goto K, Uda K, Ogata N. Embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)—material selection, improved technique, and tactics in the initial therapy of cerebral AVMs. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1998;38(Suppl):193–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Inagawa S, Isoda H, Kougo H, Isogais S, Sakahara H. In-vitro simulation of NBCA embolization for arteriovenous malformation. Interv Neuroradiol. 2003;9(4):351–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pile-Spellman J, Young WL, Joshi S, et al. Adenosine-induced cardiac pause for endovascular embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999;44(4):881–6. Discussion 886–887.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Suh DC, Kim JH, Lee MS, et al. Penetration difference of n-butyl2-cyanoacrylate into the nidus in the embolisation of brain arteriovenous malformation. Interv Neuroradiol. 1998;4(1):63–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tamatani S, Ito Y, Koike T, et al. Efficacy of diluted NBCA mixture for embolization of arteriovenous malformations. Interv Neuroradiol. 1999;5(Suppl 1):161–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tamatani S, Koike T, Ito Y, Tanaka R. Embolization of arteriovenous malformation with diluted mixture of NBCA. Interv Neuroradiol. 2000;6(Suppl 1):187–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Goto K, Uda K, Ogata N. Improved technique for liquid embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformation: catheter-tip position and flow control. J Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(Suppl):91–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Deruty R, Pelissou-Guyotat I, Mottolese C, et al. [Therapeutic risk in multidisciplinary approach of cerebral arteriovenous malformations]. Neurochirurgie. 1996;42(1):35–43.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fahed R, Clarencon F, Sourour NA, et al. Rescue N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate embolectomy using a Solitaire FR device after venous glue migration during arteriovenous malformation embolization: technical note. J Neurosurg. 2016;125(1):173–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hademenos GJ, Massoud TF. Risk of intracranial arteriovenous malformation rupture due to venous drainage impairment a theoretical analysis. Stroke. 1996;27(6):1072–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hademenos GJ, Massoud TF. An electrical network model of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: analysis of variations in hemodynamic and biophysical parameters. Neurol Res. 1996;18(6):575–89.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hademenos GJ, Massoud TF, Viñuela F. A biomathematical model of intracranial arteriovenous malformations based on electrical network analysis: theory and hemodynamics. Neurosurgery. 1996;38(5):1005–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Miyasaka Y, Kurata A, Tokiwa K, Tanaka R, Yada K, Ohwada T. Draining vein pressure increases and hemorrhage in patients with arteriovenous malformation. Stroke. 1994;25(2):504–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Norbash AM, Marks MP, Lane B. Correlation of pressure measurements with angiographic characteristics predisposing to hemorrhage and steal in cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Am J Neuroradiol. 1994;15(5):809–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Young WL, Kader A, Pile-Spellman J, et al. Arteriovenous malformation draining vein physiology and determinants of transnidal pressure gradients. Neurosurgery. 1994;35(3):389–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Willinsky R, Lasjaunias P, Terbrugge K, Pruvost P. Brain arteriovenous malformations: analysis of the angio-architecture in relationship to hemorrhage (based on 152 patients explored and/or treated at the hospital de Bicetre between 1981 and 1986). J Neuroradiol. 1988;15(3):225–37. MALFORMATIONS ARTERIO-VEINEUSES CEREBRALES. ANALYSE DE L'ANGIO-ARCHITECTURE CHEZ DES PATIENTS AYANT PRESENTE UN ACCIDENT HEMORRAGIQUE. REVUE DE 152 MALADES EXPLORES OU TRAITES A L'HOPITAL DE BICETRE ENTRE 1981 ET 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Geibprasert S, Pongpech S, Jiarakongmun P, Shroff MM, Armstrong DC, Krings T. Radiologic assessment of brain arteriovenous malformations: what clinicians need to know. Radiographics. 2010;30(2):483–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lasjaunias P, Manelfe C, Terbrugge K, Lopez Ibor L. Endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Rev. 1986;9(4):265–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mansmann U, Meisel J, Brock M, Rodesch G, Alvarez H, Lasjaunias P. Factors associated with intracranial hemorrhage in cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neurosurgery. 2000;46(2):272–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Turjman F, Massoud TF, Sayre JW, Vinuela F, Guglielmi G, Duckwiler G. Epilepsy associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a multivariate analysis of angioarchitectural characteristics. Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16(2):345–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Batjer HH, Devous MD Sr. The use of acetazolamide-enhanced regional cerebral blood flow measurement to predict risk to arteriovenous malformation patients. Neurosurgery. 1992;31(2):213–7. Discussion 217–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hassler W, Steinmetz H. Cerebral hemodynamics in angioma patients: an intraoperative study. J Neurosurg. 1987;67(6):822–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Merland JJ, Rufenacht D, Laurent A, Guimaraens L. Endovascular treatment with isobutyl cyano acrylate in patients with arteriovenous malformation of the brain. Indications, results and complications. Acta Radiolog Suppl. 1986;369:621–2.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Morgan MK, Sundt TM Jr. The case against staged operative resection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 1989;25(3):429–35. Discussion 435–426.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Vinters HV, Lundie MJ, Kaufmann JC. Long-term pathological follow-up of cerebral arteriovenous malformations treated by embolization with bucrylate. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(8):477–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Young WL, Kader A, Prohovnik I, et al. Pressure autoregulation is intact after arteriovenous malformation resection. Neurosurgery. 1993;32(4):491–6. Discussion 496–497.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Young WL, Prohovnik I, Ornstein E, et al. The effect of arteriovenous malformation resection on cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide. Neurosurgery. 1990;27(2):257–66. Discussion 266–257.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Alexander MJ, Tolbert ME. Targeting cerebral arteriovenous malformations for minimally invasive therapy. Neurosurgery. 2006;59(5 Suppl 3):S178–83. Discussion S173–113.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Krings T, Hans FJ, Geibprasert S, Terbrugge K. Partial “targeted” embolisation of brain arteriovenous malformations. Eur Radiol. 2010;20(11):2723–31.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Le Feuvre D, Taylor A. Target embolization of AVMs: identification of sites and results of treatment. Interv Neuroradiol. 2007;13(4):389–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Settecase F, Hetts SW, Nicholson AD, et al. Superselective intra-arterial ethanol sclerotherapy of feeding artery and nidal aneurysms in ruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016;37(4):692–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Heidenreich JO, Hartlieb S, Stendel R, et al. Bleeding complications after endovascular therapy of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(2):313–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Morgan MK, Johnston IH, Hallinan JM, Weber NC. Complications of surgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(2):176–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Young WL, Pile-Spellman J. Anesthetic considerations for interventional neuroradiology. Anesthesiology. 1994;80(2):427–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mourier KL, Bellec C, Lot G, et al. Pyogenic parenchymatous and nidus infection after embolization of an arteriovenous malformation. An unusual complication. Case report. Acta Neurochir. 1993;122(1–2):130–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sharma A, Jagetia A, Loomba P, Singh D, Tandon M. Delayed brain abscess after embolization of arterio-venous malformation: report of two cases and review of literature. Neurol India. 2011;59(4):620–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ito M, Sonokawa T, Mishina H, Iizuka Y, Sato K. Disrupted and migrated microcatheter in the vertebrobasilar artery system in endovascular embolization of cerebellar AVM: failure of endovascular and microneurosurgical retrieval. J Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(Suppl):49–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bingol H, Sirin G, Akay HT, Iyem H, Demirkilic U, Tatar H. Management of a retained catheter in an arteriovenous malformation. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;106(3):481–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Li T, Duan C, Wang Q, et al. Endovascular embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;82(10):654–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Li TL, Fang B, He XY, et al. Complication analysis of 469 brain arteriovenous malformations treated with N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Interv Neuroradiol. 2005;11(2):141–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hetts S, Werne A, Hieshima GB. …and do no harm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16(1):1–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew D. Alexander
    • 1
  • Daniel L. Cooke
    • 1
  • Steven W. Hetts
    • 1
  1. 1.UCSF Department of Radiology and Biomedical ImagingSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations