Egresses: Countering Stereotypes of Blackness and Disability Through Horrorcore and Krip Hop
This chapter explores ways to resist ableist and racist representations of mental disability by focusing on two aspects of hip hop culture: horrorcore and Krip Hop. The juxtaposition of both approaches helps to delineate two ways of using art to provide egresses. ‘Egress’ refers to the strategies that help to resist the confining stereotypes and representations of mental disability that circulate in cultural imageries and discourses. Egress, as embodied in, or constituted by, an artwork, piece of music or other cultural text, may occur even though this may not be the original intention of the author. The analysis focuses on the rapper Bushwick Bill, who represents the horrorcore genre, and on the punk-hop duo Kounterclockwise, from the artist collective Krip Hop Nation.
KeywordsAbleism Egress Horrorcore Krip hop Mental disability Resistance
- Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Agamben, G. (1999). Potentialities: Collected Essays in Philosophy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bailey, M. (2011). ‘The Illest’: Disability as Metaphor in Hip Hop Music. In Bell, C.M. (Ed.) Blackness and Disability: Critical Examinations and Cultural Interventions, 141–148. Münster: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
- Bushwick Bill. (1992). Little Big Man [CD]. Houston, TX: Rap-a-Lot Records.Google Scholar
- Bushwick Bill. (2009). My Testimony of Redemption [CD]. Houston, TX: Much Luvv Records.Google Scholar
- Couser, G.T. (1997). Recovering Bodies: Illness, Disability, and Life-writing. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
- Couser, G.T. (2009). Signifying Bodies: Disability in Contemporary Life Writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Derby, J. (2009). Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses. Dissertation. The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
- Derby, J. (2013). Accidents Happen: An Art Autopathography on Mental Disability. Disability Studies Quarterly, 33(1).Google Scholar
- Diefenbach, D.L. (1997). The portrayal of mental illness on prime-time television. Journal of Community Psychology, 25(3): 289–302.Google Scholar
- Egress. (2014). In The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Available at https://www.ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=egress.
- Eisenhauer, J. (2012). Behind Closed Doors: The Pedagogy and Interventionist Practice of Digital Storytelling. Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 9: 7–15.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (2004). Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at The Collège de France 1975–1976. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (2006). Psychiatric Power: Lectures at The Collège de France 1973–1974. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Garza, A. (2014). A HerStory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement. Available at http://blacklivesmatter.com/herstory/.
- Geto Boys. (1989). Grip It! On That Other Level [CD]. Houston, TX: Rap-a-Lot Records.Google Scholar
- Geto Boys. (1991). We Can’t Be Stopped [CD]. Houston, TX: Rap-a-Lot Records.Google Scholar
- Geto Boys. (1992). Uncut Dope: Geto Boys’ Best [CD]. Houston, TX: Rap-a-Lot Records.Google Scholar
- Gussow, A. (2002). Seems Like Murder Here: Southern Violence and the Blues Tradition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Krip Hop Nation & 5th Battalion. (2012). Broken Bodies PBP—Police Brutality & Profiling Mixtape [CD].Google Scholar
- Lowery W., Kindy, K., Alexander, K.L., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. and Rich, S. (2015). Distraught People, Deadly Results. Washington Post, 30 June. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/2015/06/30/distraught-people-deadly-results/.
- Lowery, W. and Stankiewicz, K. (2016). ‘My demons won today’: Ohio activist’s suicide spotlights depression among Black Lives Matter leaders. The Washington Post, 15 February. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/02/15/my-demons-won-today-ohio-activists-suicide-spotlights-depression-among-black-lives-matter-leaders/?utm_term=.471cba1ac13f.
- Lyubovny, V. (2016). Willie D: Bushwick Bill Getting Shot for Threatening to Throw Baby Out Window, 28 June. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uhesu3mqikU&t=40s.
- McNeil Laboratories. (1974). Archives of General Psychiatry, 31(5): 732–733.Google Scholar
- Metzl, J. (2009). Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease [Kindle version]. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Miles, J. (1924). Mad Mama’s Blues [Phonograph record]. New York, NY: Edison Records.Google Scholar
- Monarch, B. (2015). Monarch Podcast Ep. 001—Bushwick Bill. 28 May. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XN90awrQqgk.
- Moore, L.F., Gray-Garcia, L. and Thrower, E.H. (2016). Black & Blue: Policing Disability & Poverty Beyond Occupation. In Block, P., Kasnitz, D., Nishida, A. and Pollard, N. (Eds.) Occupying Disability: Critical Approaches to Community, Justice, and Decolonizing Disability, 295–318. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
- Notorious B.I.G. (1994). Ready to Die [CD]. New York, NY: Bad Boy Records.Google Scholar
- Notorious B.I.G. (1997). Life After Death [CD]. New York, NY: Bad Boy Records.Google Scholar
- Price, M. (2011). Mad at School: Rhetorics of Mental Disability and Academic Life. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, M. (1920). Crazy Blues [Phonograph record]. New York, NY: Okeh Records.Google Scholar
- Strauss, N. (1994). When Rap Meets the Undead. The New York Times, 18 September. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/18/arts/pop-view-when-rap-meets-the-undead.html?sec=&spon.