Advertisement

Trends and Patterns of Police-Related Deaths in Brazil

  • Vania Ceccato
  • Silas N. Melo
  • Tulio Kahn
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter characterizes state-level trends and patterns of police-related deaths in Brazil—civilian deaths at the hands of, and in confrontation with, the police. The chapter builds on the most recent literature of police-related deaths and relies on new data to characterize trends and the geography of police-related deaths in Brazil from two complementary sources. Although some states have seen an overall decrease in homicides, the number of recorded police killings is on the rise. The geography of police killings at the state level reflects a culture of violence in the country fed by a number of multiple factors, among them, impunity.

Keywords

Police killings Police-related deaths Extrajudicial killing Homicide regional patterns Spatial statistics Brazil 

References

  1. Adorno, S. (2013). Democracy in progress in contemporary Brazil: Corruption, organized crime, violence and new paths to the rule of law. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 2, 409–425.Google Scholar
  2. Adorno, S., & Cardia, N. (2000). Police violence, Democratic transition and rule of law in Brazil (1980–1998). Paper presented at the XXII International Congress of Latin American Studies Association, 16–18 March, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
  3. Adorno, S., & Salla, F. (2007). Organized criminality in prisons and the attacks of the PCC. Estudos Avancados, 21(61), 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahnen, R. E. (2007). The politics of police violence in democratic Brazil. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(1), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Almeida, E. M. (2014). A guide to the perpetuation of human rights violations: Police violence and impunity in brazil. Oxford Human Rights Hub. Retrieved June 17, 2016, from http://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/a-guide-to-the-perpetuation-of-human-rights-violations-police-violence-and-impunity-in-brazil/
  6. Anselin, L., & Rey, S. J. (2014). Modern spatial econometrics in practice: A guide to GeoDa, GeoDaSpace and PySAL. GeoDa Press LLC.Google Scholar
  7. Armacost, B. E. (2004). Organizational culture and police misconduct. George Washington Law Review, 72(3), 453–546.Google Scholar
  8. BBC. (2001). Brazil jail massacre: Policeman convicted. BBC. Retrieved March 11, 2016, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1415178.stm
  9. Bruce, D., & Neild, R. (2005). The Police That We Want. A Handbook for Oversight of Police in South Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa: Centre for Study of Violence and Reconciliation in association with the Open Society Foundation for South Africa and the Open Society Justice Initiative.Google Scholar
  10. Burnham, K. P., & Anderson, D. R. (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Bursik, R. J. (1999). The informal control of crime through neighborhood networks. Sociological Focus, 32(1), 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caldeira, T. P. R. (2013). The paradox of police violence in democratic Brazil. In W. Garriott (Ed.), Policing and Contemporary Governance: The Anthropology of Police in Practice (pp. 97–124). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cano, I. (2010). Racial bias in police use of lethal force in Brazil. Police Practice and Research, 11(1), 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ceccato, V. (2014). The geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural determinants of violence. In P. D. Donnelly & C. L. Ward (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention: Epidemiology, Evidence, and Policy (pp. 77–86). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ceccato, V., Haining, R., & Kahn, T. (2007). The geography of homicide in São Paulo, Brazil. Environment and Planning A, 39, 1632–1653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chappell, D., & Wilson, P. R. (1969). The Police and the Public in Australia and New Zealand. St Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cubas, V. O. (2012). Violência policial in São Paulo. In 5° Relatório Nacional sobre os Direitos Humanos no Brasil 2001–2010, 312. São Paulo: Núcleo de Estudos da Violência da USP.Google Scholar
  18. Datafolha. (2015, October 5). Datafolha: Para 50%, ‘bandido bom é bandido morto’. O Globo. Retrieved March 11, 2017, from http://oglobo.globo.com/brasil/datafolha-para-50-bandido-bom-bandido-morto-17688287
  19. Dennis, A. (2015). Good cop-bad cop: Police violence and the child’s mind. Howard Law Journal, 58(3), 811–824.Google Scholar
  20. Durkheim, E. (1897). Suicide: A Study in Sociology. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Exame. (2015, November 11). Os estados com mais homicídios no Brasil.Google Scholar
  22. Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (FBSP). (2016). Anuário Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from http://www.forumseguranca.org.br/atividades/anuario/Google Scholar
  23. Gagliardi, P. (2012). Transnational organized crime and gun violence. A case for firearm forensic intelligence sharing. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 26(1), 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garmany, J. (2014). Space for the state? Police, violence, and urban poverty in Brazil. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(6), 1239–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Getis, A., & Ord, J. K. (1992). The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geographical Analysis, 24(3), 189–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1992.tb00261.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gibbs, J. C., Ruiz, J., & Klapper-Lehman, S. A. (2014). Police officers killed on duty: Replicating and extending a unique look at officer deaths. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(4), 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grogger, J., & Ridgeway, G. (2006). Testing for racial profiling in traffic stops from behind a veil of darkness. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 405(101), 879–887.Google Scholar
  28. Hoelscher, K., & Norheim-Martinsen, P. M. (2014). Urban violence and the militarisation of security: Brazilian ‘peacekeeping’ in Rio de Janeiro and Port-au-Prince. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 25(5–6), 957–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Human Rights Watch (HRW). (1997). Police Brutality in Urban Brazil. New York, USA: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  30. Human Rights Watch (HRW). (1999). Brazil—Human Rights Developments. Retrieve March 14, 2017, from https://www.hrw.org/legacy/wr2k/americas-01.htm
  31. Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2009a, December 8). Brazil: Curb police violence in Rio, São Paulo: Extrajudicial killings undermine public security. News. Retrieved March 14, 2017, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2009/12/08/brazil-curb-police-violence-rio-sao-paulo
  32. Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2009b). Lethal Force: Police Violence and Public Security in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from https://www.hrw.org/report/2009/12/08/lethal-force/police-violence-and-public-security-rio-de-janeiro-and-sao-pauloGoogle Scholar
  33. Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)/Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (FBSP). (2016). Atlas da Violência 2016. Brasília. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/images/stories/PDFs/nota_tecnica/160322_nt_17_atlas_da_violencia_2016_finalizado.pdfGoogle Scholar
  34. Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Sources of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lino, P. R. (2004). Police education and training in a global society: A Brazilian overview. Police Practice and Research, 5(2), 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/156142604200190270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McElreath, R. (2015). Statistical Rethinking: A Bayesian Course with Examples. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.Google Scholar
  37. Melo, S. N., Andresen, M. A., & Matias, L. F. (2016). Geography of crime in a Brazilian context: An application of social disorganization theory. Urban Geography, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2016.1255920.
  38. Messner, S. F. (1983). Regional and racial effects on the urban homicide rate: The subculture of violence revisited. American Journal of Sociology, 88(5), 997–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Messner, S. F., & Rosenfeld, R. (1997). Political restraint of the market and levels of criminal homicide: A cross-national application of institutional-anomie theory. Social Forces, 75(4), 1393–1416.Google Scholar
  40. Messner, S. F., & Rosenfeld, R. (Eds.). (1999). Social Structure and Homicide: Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Ministério da Saúde. (2013). Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade—SIM. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www2.datasus.gov.br/DATASUS/index.php?area=0205
  42. Naim, M. (2006). Ilícito: o ataque da pirataria, da lavagem de dinheiro e do tráfico à economia global. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar.Google Scholar
  43. Oatman, M. (2014, November 12). US police brutality is bad. This giant Western country’s is way worse. Mother Jones. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2014/11/brazil-police-brutality-kill-6-people-a-day
  44. Richardson, L. S. (2015). Police racial violence: Lessons from social psychology. Fordham Law Review, 83, 2961–2976.Google Scholar
  45. Ross, C. T. (2015). A multi-level Bayesian analysis of racial bias in police shootings at the county-level in the United States, 2011–2014. PLoS ONE, 10(11), e0141854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5328.918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sampson, R. J., & Wilson, W. J. (Eds.). (1995). Toward a Theory of Race, Crime and Urban Inequality. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Sekhon, N. (2017). Blue on Black: An empirical assessment of police shootings. American Criminal Law Review, 54, 189.Google Scholar
  49. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Skogan, W. G. (2013). Use of force and police reform in Brazil: A national survey of police officers. Police Practice and Research, 14(4), 319–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Telep, C. W. (2011). The impact of higher education on police officer attitudes toward abuse of authority. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 22(3), 392–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vargas, J. C., & Amparo Alves, J. (2010). Geographies of death: An intersectional analysis of police lethality and the racialized regimes of citizenship in São Paulo. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(4), 611–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982). Broken windows. Atlantic Monthly, 249, 29–38.Google Scholar
  54. Wolfgang, M. E., & Ferracuti, F. (1982). Subculture of Violence—Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10). Retrieved August 31, 2017, from http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/Google Scholar
  56. Zaluar, A. (2012). Turf war in Rio de Janeiro: Youth, drug traffic, guns and hyper-masculinity. In V. Ceccato (Ed.), The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear (pp. 217–237). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública (FBSP). (2016). Anuário Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from http://www.forumseguranca.org.br/atividades/anuario/Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vania Ceccato
    • 1
  • Silas N. Melo
    • 2
  • Tulio Kahn
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Urban Planning and EnvironmentRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH)StockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of CampinasSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Fundação Espaço DemocráticoSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations