Advertisement

A Southern Perspective on Extrajudicial Police Killings in Bangladesh

  • Md. Kamal Uddin
Chapter

Abstract

Research into the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) and extrajudicial killing in Bangladesh remains undeveloped in several areas. Existing research does not pay adequate attention to the causes and dynamics of extrajudicial killing in Bangladesh. Nor does it explore the issue using any major theoretical framework, such as global Southern perspectives. This chapter considers policing and extrajudicial killing in Bangladesh using Southern criminology as an analytical tool. It is argued that the lack of effectiveness of criminal justice institutions due to a colonial legacy and corruption encourages the creation of this new elite force for controlling crime and terrorism, which often justifies its existence through taking recourse to extrajudicial killing.

Keywords

Rapid Action Battalion Policing Extrajudicial killing Southern criminology Criminal justice and Bangladesh 

References

  1. Ain O Shalish Kendra. (2005). RAB, Eradication of Terrorism or State-Backed Terrorism. Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  2. Alamgir, J. (2009). Bangladesh’s fresh start. Journal of Democracy, 20(3), 41–55. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.0.0100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alston, P. (2010). UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions: Handbook. United Nations.Google Scholar
  4. Aminuzzaman, S., & Khair, S. (2014). National Integrity System Assessment 2014. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Transparency International Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  5. Amnesty International UK. (2003, January 26). Bangladesh: Indemnity Bill—A human rights challenge for parliament. Press Releases. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/bangladesh-indemnity-bill-human-rights-challenge-parliament
  6. Ashraf, A. S. M. A. (2014). Extrajudicial killing and human rights. In I. Ahmed (Ed.), Human Rights in Bangladesh: Past, Present and Future (pp. 163–204). Dhaka: The University Press Limited.Google Scholar
  7. Ashrafuzzaman, M., Cheesman, N., Asian Legal Resource Center (ALRC), & Asian Human Rights Commission. (2006). Lawless law-enforcement and the parody of judiciary in Bangladesh. Article 2, 5(4).Google Scholar
  8. Asian Legal Resource Centre. (2014). Special report on inexistent Rule of Law in Bangladesh. Article 2, 13(2/3).Google Scholar
  9. Blair, H. (2001). Civil society, democratic development and international donors. In R. Jahan (Ed.), Bangladesh: Promise and Performance (pp. 181–218). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  10. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. (2015). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014. United States Department of State.Google Scholar
  11. Carrington, K., Hogg, R., & Sozzo, M. (2016). Southern Criminology. British Journal of Criminology, 56(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azv083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. D’costa, B. (2011). Bangladesh in 2011: Weak state-building and diffident foreign policy. Asian Survey, 52(1), 147–156. https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2012.52.1.147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Habib AZM Arman. (2015). Extra judicial killing in Bangladesh: A murder of human rights. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(2), 69–80.Google Scholar
  14. Hagelin, B., & Sköns, E. (2004). SIPRI Yearbook 2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hossain, M. S. (2010). Extrajudicial killing-rights of the accused under the criminal law of Islam and contemporary law. ASA University Review, 4(2), 169–179.Google Scholar
  16. Human Rights Watch. (2006). Judge, Jury, and Executioner: Torture and Extrajudicial Killings by Bangladesh’s Elite Security Force, Human Rights Watch, 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA, Available from: athttp://www. hrw.org/sites/ default/files/reports/ bangladesh1206webwcover.pdf, (Aaccessed 20 July 2016). Google Scholar
  17. Human Rights Watch. (2009). Ignoring Executions and Torture: Impunity for Bangladesh’s Security Forces, Human Rights Watch, 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA, Available from: http:// www. hrw. org/ sites /default/ files/reports / bangladesh0509web. Pdf (accessed 20 July 2016).Google Scholar
  18. Human Rights Watch. (2011). Crossfire: Continued Human Rights Abuses by Bangladesh’s Rapid Action Battalion, Human Rights Watch, 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA, Available from: http://www. hrw.org/ sites/default/files /reports/ bangladesh0511webwcover.Pdf (Accessed 20 July 2016).  Google Scholar
  19. Human Rights Watch. (2014). Democracy in the Crossfire Opposition: Violence and Government Abuses in the 2014 Pre- and Post-Election Period in Bangladesh, Human Rights Watch, 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA. Available from: http://www.hrw.org/sites/ default/files/reports/ bangladesh0414_ ForUpload.pdf (Accessed 10 December 2016)Google Scholar
  20. Huque, A. S. (2016). The path to governance: Political and administrative development in Bangladesh. In A. S. Huque (Ed.), Bangladesh: History, Politics, Economy, Society and Culture Essays in Honour of Professor Alamgir Muhammad Serajuddin (pp. 249–274). Dhaka, Bangladesh: University Press Limited.Google Scholar
  21. Institute of Governance Studies. (2009). The State of Governance in Bangladesh 2008. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Brac University.Google Scholar
  22. Kabir, S. (2006). Violation of Human Rights by the Coalition Government of Bangladesh. Forum for Secular Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  23. Karzon, S. H. R. (2006, October 14). Bangladesh Police: Existing problems and some reform proposals. Daily Star. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://archive.thedailystar.net/law/2006/10/02/index.htm
  24. Kaufman, E., & Fagen, P. W. (1981). Extrajudicial executions: An insight into the global dimensions of a human rights violation. Human Rights Quarterly, 3(4), 81–100. https://doi.org/10.2307/762112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khan, A. (2012). NGOs, the judiciary and rights in Bangladesh. Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law, 1(3), 254–274. https://doi.org/10.7574/cjicl.01.03.53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Khan, S. R. (2014). Inexistent Rule of Law in Bangladesh—Vested interest: The ‘human rights’ practices of political parties. Article 2, 13(2/3).Google Scholar
  27. Kraska, P. B. (2007). Militarization and policing: Its relevance to 21st century police. Policing, 1(4), 501–513. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/pam065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kremnitzer, M., Menashe, D., & Ghanayim, K. (2007). The use of lethal force by police. The Criminal Law Quarterly, 53(1), 67–97.Google Scholar
  29. Lanfer, A. (2010). Extrajudicial killings—A human rights crisis. Observer: A Journal on threatened Human Rights Defenders in the Philippines, 2(2), 4–6.Google Scholar
  30. Laskar, S. I. (2005). Bangladesh: Justice in Disarray. Transparency International Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  31. Lewis, D. (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li, M. (2013). Corruption, transparency and the resource curse. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 3(6), 572–575. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJSSH.2013.V3.305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Migdal, J. S. (1988). Strong Societies and Weak States, State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Nawaz, F. (2012). Overview of corruption within the justice sector and law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh. U4 Expert Answer 216. Transparency International.Google Scholar
  35. O’Connor, M. M. J. (2013). Bangladesh Rapid Action Battalion: Satisfying the requirements of the Leahy Amendment with a Rule of Law approach. Military Review, 215, 182–230.Google Scholar
  36. Odhikar. (2004). Report 2004, Project on Investigation, Research and Publication of Human Rights Violations. Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  37. Odhikar. (2010). Apollo Hospital technician Md. Mohiuddin Arif died after alleged torture by RAB. Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  38. Odhikar. (2016a). Statistics on killed by law enforcement agencies. Extrajudicial Killings from 2001–2016. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://1dgy051vgyxh41o8cj16kk7s19f2.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Statistics_EJK_2001-2016.pdf
  39. Odhikar. (2016b). Statistics on crossfire or gunfights by law enforcement agencies from 2001–2016. Extrajudicial Killings from 2001–2016. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://1dgy051vgyxh41o8cj16kk7s19f2.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Statistics_Crossfire_Gunfight_2001-2016.pdf
  40. Qadr, A. A. (1968). Justice in Historical Islam. Lahor: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf.Google Scholar
  41. Rajamohan, P. G. (2002, December 30). Operation Clean Heart: Bangladesh’s national war against terror. Articles-Terror. New Delhi, India: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. Retrieved December 16, 2016, from http://www.ipcs.org/article/terrorism/operation-clean-heart-bangladeshs-national-war-against-terror-931.html
  42. Rapid Action Battalion (RAB). (n.d.-a). About us. Rapid Action Battalion. Retrieved May 16, 2017, from http://www.rab.gov.bd/english/about-us/
  43. Rapid Action Battalion (RAB). (n.d.-b). Telephone directory. Rapid Action Battalion. Retrieved November 5, 2014, from http://www.rab.gov.bd/index.php/telephone-directory.html
  44. Rapid Action Battalion (RAB). (2013). RAB Journal: 5–6. Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  45. Reyes, P. J. R. T., & Del Castillo, J. M. C. (2016). Thoughts on extrajudicial killings and unexplained disappearances. Manilla, Philippines: Court of Appeals. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from http://ca.judiciary.gov.ph/index.php?action=mnuactual_contents&ap=j5050
  46. Seelke, R. C., & Finklea, K. (2014). US-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond. Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  47. Transparency International. (2001). Corruption Perception Index 2001.Google Scholar
  48. Transparency International. (2002). Corruption Perception Index 2002. Avaible Online from:https://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/cpi_2002/0/ (Accessed: 20 July 2017)Google Scholar
  49. Transparency International. (2003). Corruption Perception Index2003. Availabe Online from: https://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/cpi_2003/0/ (Accessed: 30 July 2017).Google Scholar
  50. Transparency International. (2011). Corruption Perception Index 2011. Available from:https://www.transparency.org/cpi2011 (Accessed: 25 July 2017).Google Scholar
  51. Transparency International Bangladesh. (2005). Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey. Available from: https://www.ti-bangladesh.org/HH%20Survey/Household%20Survey%20-%202005.pdf.Google Scholar
  52. Uddin, J. M. (2009). Security sector reform in Bangladesh. South Asian Survey, 16(2), 209–230. https://doi.org/10.1177/097152310901600204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Uddin, M. K. (2017). Human Rights Abuses in Bangladeshi policing: The protection capacity of National Human Rights Commission. Human Rights Review. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-017-0449-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Legislation

  1. Armed Police Battalions Amendment Act (2003).Google Scholar
  2. Armed Police Battalions Ordinance (1979).Google Scholar
  3. Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini Act (1972).Google Scholar
  4. Limitation on Assistance to Security Forces (Leahy Amendment) 22 U.S. Code § 2378d.Google Scholar
  5. Penal Code (Bangladesh) (1860).Google Scholar
  6. Police Regulations Bengal (1943).Google Scholar
  7. The Constitution of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh (1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Kamal Uddin
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations