The potential for using the reflection of ultrasound in the visualization of the internal organs of the human body was recognized about 80 years ago. The first attempts at using ultrasound in medical diagnosis were made in the late 1930s by the Austrian neurologist K.T. Dussik. He developed what he referred to as hyperphonography, a sonographic transmission technique for the visualization of the cerebral ventricles. Also in the 1940s, American scientists began experimenting with ultrasound reflection to examine biological objects. Among the early pioneers were Ludwig and Struthers, who used this new technique for detecting gallstones. Other important milestones in the history of diagnostic ultrasound were the development of B-mode imaging by Howry and Bliss and the introduction of the echo pulse method by Leksell in Sweden, which he used to determine the position of midline brain structures in the intact skull, thus marking the start of echoencephalography. In 1954, Edler and Herz presented the first description of M-mode echocardiography.
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