Eating Disorders Among Second-Generation Canadian South Asian Female Youth: An Intersectionality Approach Toward Exploring Cultural Conflict, Dual-Identity, and Mental Health
Introduction to the Topic
As of 2011, the South Asian community became the largest visible minority group in Canada, made up of individuals from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Youth between the ages of 15 and 24 represent the largest portion of this population, and have unique historic, social, and cultural upbringings as a result of being raised with both South Asian and Canadian values. Many of these youth are second-generation, either migrating at young ages to Canada or belonging to immigrant families. Research on second-generation youth within this community has shown that they experience issues of dual-identity formation and cultural conflict, as well as concerns of mental health tension. Eating disorders, for example, have recently been observed to be prevalent in South Asian communities in the West, with self-dissatisfaction beginning at very young ages.
This chapter presents research findings exploring the intersection of identity and culture in second-generation Canadian South Asian female youth who have had an eating disorder. The main aim of this study was to question how adolescent mental health within this community has been influenced by dual-cultural upbringings, social tensions, and intergenerational conflict.
Main Body (e.g., Literature Review and/or Research Findings)
Eight women between the ages of 21 and 29 participated in a semi-structured interview. These young women were identified as being second-generation South Asians, as well as having sought help for an eating disorder. Findings show that cultural tension exists when balancing South Asian values within a Canadian society, and this imbalance significantly influences youth identity and mental health. This culture conflict and gendered-cultural expectations led to isolation, alienation, and self-dissatisfaction in the youth in this study.
Taking an intersectionality approach reveals that participants’ experiences with an eating disorder were influenced by multiple intersecting identities, as well as dissonant integration. Being raised in South Asian families in Canada created a unique set of conflicts for these women, as they felt pressure abiding to traditional values and customs. Many of the women also had restrictions and limitations enforced by parents in adolescent years, which caused rebellion, guilt, and anxiety as youth. Intergenerational conflict with parents further led to isolation and confusion, which these women attribute to influencing their mental health –effecting disordered eating behavior. Participants overcame many of these challenges through professional counseling, and breaking stigma. Resiliency and strength have made these women current advocates for youth mental health.
Due to the rapid growth of the South Asian population within Canada, it is essential that mental health concerns specific to youth within these communities be explored. Mental health is often silenced within South Asian cultures, making it difficult for adolescents to seek help and treatment. This research contributes to the literature on raising awareness on the cultural, social, and familial factors which intersect to influence the mental health experiences of South Asian female youth. We hope this work informs health care professionals who interact with the community, in an attempt to increase culturally sensitive care.
KeywordsYouth mental health South Asian youth Eating disorders Identity Intersectionality
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