Advertisement

Cultural Policies in the Baltic States and Slovenia Between 1991 and 2009

  • Egge Kulbok-Lattik
  • Vesna Čopič
Chapter
Part of the Sociology of the Arts book series (SOA)

Abstract

The chapter compares cultural policies of the Baltic states and Slovenia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. First, a brief reflection on the similar but still very different historical and communist legacy has been discussed. Also, the wider context of the overall political changes in Europe, when the Baltic States were restored and Slovenia established its independence, has been marked. The main changes in cultural policy during the transition and between 1991 and 2004, and then since the four countries joined the EU between 2004 and 2009, have been pointed out, including some bitter experiences of neoliberal reality. Discussing divergent paths of Western and Eastern European, the concept of multiple modernities has been used.

Keywords

Comparative Cultural policy Transition 

References

  1. Allik, Jaak. 1995. “Preface”. Cultural Policy in Estonia. National Report. European Programme of National Cultural Policy Reviews. Culture Committee. Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  2. Arendt, Hannah. 1985 [1948]. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harvest.Google Scholar
  3. Bohle, Dorothee, and Béla Greskovits. 2012. Capitalist Diversity on Europe’s Periphery. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Čopič, Vesna. 2014. Birokratska instrumentalizacija culture [Bureaucratic Instrumentalization of Culture]. Menadžment dramskih umetnosti i medija – izazovi XXI veka: zbornik radova sa naučnog skupa [Conference Proceedings Management of Dramatic Arts and Media – The Challenges of XXI Century], ed. Nikolić, Mirjana (ur.), 181–193. Beograd, [10. i 11. decembar 2013]. Beograd: Fakultet dramskih umetnosti, Institut za pozorište, film, radio i televiziju.Google Scholar
  5. Council of Europe. 1998a. Cultural Policy in Latvia: Revised Report of a European Panel of Examiners by Dorota Ilczuk. CC-CULT(98) 4B rev., Strasbourg: Council of Europe/Riga: Ministry of Culture. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/culture/Reviews/Latvia_EN.asp. Accessed 2 Sept 2011.
  6. ———. 1998b. Cultural Policy in Lithuania: Report of a European Panel of Examiners by Bill Dufton. CC-CULT (97) 24 B Final. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/culture/Reviews/Lithuania_EN.asp. Accessed 2 Sept 2011.
  7. ———. 1998c. Cultural Policy in Slovenia. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Delo. 2012. Slovenian Cultural Policy. Used by Vesna Čopič Report of the Ministry.Google Scholar
  9. Dragićević-Šešić, Milena, and Sanjin Dragojevic. 2005. Arts Management in Turbulent Times. Amsterdam: European Cultural Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Duelund, Peter, ed. 2003. The Nordic Cultural Model. Copenhagen: Nordic Cultural Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Eisenstadt, Shmuel. 2000, Winter. Multiple Modernities. Daedalus 1: 1–29.Google Scholar
  12. Estonian Ministry of Culture’s Developmental Plan for 2011–2014. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/our-policy-development/european-agenda_en.htm
  13. Estonian Ministry of Finance Budget Reports of the Municipalities 2012. http://www.fin.ee/kov-eelarved-ulevaat
  14. Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 1999. Everyday Stalinism. Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gabrič, Aleš. 2008. Censorship in Slovenia After the World War II. Orig. Cenzura v Sloveniji po drugi svetovni vojni. Trans. Leonora Flis. Primerjalna književnost [Comparative Literature] 31: 221–236. http://www.dlib.si/preview/URN:NBN:SI:doc-P9XDFJAG/e02b0308-d175-4a06-bebb-7eedf43d8051
  16. Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hillmann-Chartrand, Harry, and Claire McCaughey. 1989. The Arm’s Length Principle and the Arts: An International Perspective – Past, Present and Future. In Who’s to Pay? for the Arts: The International Search for Models of Support, ed. M.C. Cummings Jr. and M. Davidson Schuster. New York: American Council for the Arts.Google Scholar
  18. Hoffmann, David. 2003. Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Soviet Modernity, 1917–1941. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Janos, Andrew C. 1970. Group Politics in Communist Society: A Second Look at the Pluralistic Model. In Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society, ed. S.P. Huntington and C.H. Moore, 537–550. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 1997. The Political Economy of Ethnic Conflict: The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research, The University of California, Berkeley. http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/nceeer/1997-810-18-Janos.pdf
  21. Kangas, Anita. 2002. Euroopan unionin rakennerahastot suomalaisen kulttuurielämän tukijoina [The European Union Structural Funds as Supporters of Finnish Cultural Life]. Kunnallistieteellinen aikakauskirja 30 (4): 375–390.Google Scholar
  22. Kangas, Anita, Sakarias Sokka, and Tomi Mertanen. 2010. Insomniac Isomorphia? Homogenization in Finnish Cultural Policy. Paper Presented in the 6th ICCPR 2010, Jyväskylä.Google Scholar
  23. Kasekamp, Andres. 2010. A History of the Baltic States. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kos, Janko. 1996. Duhovna zgodovina Slovencev [Spiritual History of Slovenes]. Ljubljana: Slovenska matica.Google Scholar
  25. Kornai, J. 1980. Economics of Shortage. In Contribution to Economic Analysis #131, 2 vols. Amsterdam, 315.Google Scholar
  26. Kulbok, Egge. 2008. Eesti kultuuripoliitika ajaloolisest periodiseerimisest [On the Historical Periodization of Estonian Cultural Policy]. Acta Historica Tallinnensia 12 (1): 120–144. https://ec.europa.eu/culture/Google Scholar
  27. Kulbok-Lattik, Egge. 2014. Sovietization of the Estonian Community Houses (Rahvamaja). Soviet Guidelines. Acta Historica Tallinnesia 20: 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kulbok-Lattik, Egge. 2015. The Historical Formation and Development of Estonian Cultural Policy: Tracing the Development of Estonian Community Houses (Rahvamaja). Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University Printing House.Google Scholar
  29. Kulbok-Lattik, Egge, and Birgit Lüüs. 2013. Comparative Overview of Developments in the Field of Cultural Policy in the Baltic States in 1991–2009. Paper Presented in ICCPR 2013, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  30. Lagerspetz, Mikko. 1998. Estonian Culture Entering 21st Century: Between Identity-Building and Fragmentation. Arsis 1: 14–17.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2003. Institutsionaliseeritus ja avatus kultuuripoliitikas [Institutionalization and Openness in Cultural Policy]. Looming 7: 12–27.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2010. Aeg vendluseks? [Time for Fraternity?] Vikerkaar, 9.Google Scholar
  33. Latvian Cultural Policy Guidelines “National State” 2006–2015. http://www.km.gov.lv/en/documents/planning_doc.html
  34. Leys, Colin. 2002. Global Capitalism and National Politics. In Globalization and Insecurity: Political, Economic and Physical Challenges, ed. B. Harris-White, 85–107. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  35. Lithuanian Guidelines for Alternation of the Lithuanian Cultural Policy 2012–2016. http://www.lrkm.lt/index.php?1767379940
  36. Lüüs, Birgit. 2012. Arm’s Length Principle as a Mechanism for Funding the Cultural Field in the Baltic States. MA thesis, University of Tallinn.Google Scholar
  37. Luthar, Oto. 2014. Linguistic Mobility in the Central European Periphery and Multiethnic Heritage at the Beginning of the 20th Century. Dve domovini 39: 103–110.Google Scholar
  38. Mertelsmann, Olaf. 2012. Everyday Life in Stalinist Estonia. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Misiunas, Romuald J., and Rein Taagepera. 1993. The Baltic States, Years of Dependence, 1940–1980. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mulcahy, Kevin. 2006. Cultural Policy: Definitions and Theoretical Approaches. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 35: 4.Google Scholar
  41. Müllerson, Rein. 2010. Liberté, égalité and fraternité in a Post-communist and Globalised World. Vikerkaar 9. http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2010-09-29-mullerson-en.html
  42. National Cultural Policy Reviews. 1998. Cultural Policy in Latvia: Revised Report of a European Panel of Examiners by Dorota Ilczuk. CC-CULT (98) 4B rev., Strasbourg/Riga: Council of Europe/Ministry of Culture. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cul-tureheritage/culture/Reviews/Latvia_EN.asp. Accessed 2 Sept 2011; Cultural Policy in Lithuania: Report of a European Panel of Examiners by Bill Dufton. CC-CULT (97) 24 B Final. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/culture/Reviews/Lithuania_EN.asp. Accessed 2 Sept 2011; Cultural Policy in Slovenia. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
  43. Norkus, Zenonas. 2011. Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Post-communist Development in the Comparative Perspective. In Estonian Human Development Report. Baltic Way(s) of Human Development: Twenty Years On, ed. Marju Lauristin, 22–31. Tallinn: Estonian Cooperation Assembly. http://kogu.ee/public/eia2011/eia_eng_2011.pdf
  44. Osborne, David, and Gaebler, Ted. 1994. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector. Reviewed by Mark Lusk, Boise State University. http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2116&context=jssw
  45. Pirjevec, J. 1995. Jugoslavija (1918–1992): Nastanek, razvoj ter razpad Karadjordjevićeve in Titove Jugoslavije [Yugoslavia (1918–1992). Establishment, Development and Decomposition of Karadjordjević´‘s and Tito’s Yugoslavia]. Koper: Založba Lipa.Google Scholar
  46. Programme Culture by the European Commission 2007–2013. https://ec.europa.eu/culture/
  47. Raun, Toivo-Ülo. 2009. Eesti lülitumine modernsusesse: ‘Noor-Eesti’ roll poliitilise ja sotsiaalse mõtte mitmekesistamisel [The Estonian Engagement with Modernity: The Role of Young-Estonia in the Diversification of Political and Social Thought]. Tuna 2: 39–50.Google Scholar
  48. Resolucija o nacionalnem programu za kulturo 2004–2007 (Uradni list RS št.28/04). [Resolution on the National Programme for Culture 2004–2007]. The National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.Google Scholar
  49. ———. 2008–2011. (Uradni list RS št. 35/08 in 95/10). [Resolution on the National Programme for Culture 2008–2011]. The National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.Google Scholar
  50. ——— 2014–2017 (Uradni list RS, št. 99/13). [Resolution on the National Programme for Culture 2014–2017]. The National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.Google Scholar
  51. Rupnik, Jan. 2009. La crise annonce la fin du cycle libèral en Europe Centrale. http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2009-08-25-rupnik-fr.html
  52. Ruutsoo, Rein. 2002. Civil Society and Nation Building in Estonia and the Baltic States. Impact of Traditions on Mobilization and Transition 1986–2000 – Historical and Sociological Study. Dissertation. Acta Univeristatis Lapponiensis 49. Rovaniemi: Lapin Yliopisto.Google Scholar
  53. Školč, Jožef. 1998. Nagovor ministra za kulturo [Address of the Minister for Culture]. In Kulturna politika v Sloveniji – Simpozi j [Cultural Policy in Slovenia-Symposium], ed. V. Čopič and G. Tomc, 13–14. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za družbene vede.Google Scholar
  54. Slezkine, Yuri. 1994. The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism. Slavic Review 53 (2): 414–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tjarve, Baiba. 2012. Decentralisation of Culture in Latvia during the Transition Period, 1991–2010: Institutional Transformations. Paper Presented in the 7th ICCPR 2012, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  56. Ulam, A.B. 1965. Titoism. In Marxism in the Modern World, ed. Milorad M. Drachkovich. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Zubkova, Jelena. 2007. Probleemne tsoon: Balti vabariikide sovetiseerimise iseärasused sõjajärgsel ajal 1944–1952 [Problematic Zone: Specific Features of Sovietization in Baltic Republics in Post-War Period from 1944 to 1952]. In Eesti NSV aastatel 1940–1953: sovetiseerimise mehhanismid ja tagajärjed Nõukogude Liidu ja Ida-Euroopa kontekstis [Estonian SSR in 1940–1953: Mechanisms and Consequences of the Sovietization in the Context of Soviet Union and Eastern Europe] ed. Tõnu Tannberg. Acta et Commentationes Archivi Historici Estoniae 15 (22). Tartu: Eesti Ajaloo Arhiiv.Google Scholar
  58. Županov, J. 1989. Samoupravni socializem – konec neke utopije. [Self-Management Socialism – An End of One Utopia]. Teorija in praksa 26: 11–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Egge Kulbok-Lattik
    • 1
  • Vesna Čopič
    • 2
  1. 1.University of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.University of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations