A Case Study of an Upriver Halq’eméylem Language Programme in British Columbia
The author conducted research on the effectiveness of information and communication technology (ICT) on the maintenance of traditional language in an Indigenous community in Canada. Her study focused on the use of ICT not only in relation to language recovery and maintenance but also on the effectiveness of fluency. Her work blended cultural studies, computer science, the psychology of language acquisition, Indigenous studies (including Indigenous epistemologies), and the sociology of education. Overall, her research demonstrated that while ICT was successful in supporting micro-level activities managed by individuals, fluency generally did not result. Her recommendations include the creation of a catalogue of all content developed and applications in use to be maintained by a central and agreed upon party, the use of applications in a Software as a Service (SaaS) or similar model, continuation of ongoing formal and informal meetings of the individuals who are working to revitalize the language, and ongoing attempts by the community to determine why language is not being spoken while continuing to make the language visible.
- Anderson, K. (2009). Leading by action: Female chiefs and the political landscape. In G. G. Valaskakis, M. D. Stout, & E. Guimond (Eds.), Restoring the balance: First nations women, community, and culture (pp. 99–123). Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
- Atleo, M. R. (2001). Learning models in the Umeek narratives: Identifying an education framework through storywork with first nations elders. The University of British Columbia, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
- Battiste, M. (2008). Research ethics for protecting indigenous knowledge and heritage. In N. K. Denzin, Y. S. Lincoln, & L. T. Smith (Eds.), Handbook of critical and indigenous methodologies (pp. 497–509). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Bourget, N. (2016). Case study: An evaluation of information and communication technology use in upriver Halq’eméylem language programs. Language Documentation & Conservation, 10, 165–187.Google Scholar
- Bracewell, M. (1997). Halq’eméylem language programmes in Stó:lō territory: An historical review and current summary. Ethnographic Field School, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
- Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Castells, M. (2005). The network society: From knowledge to policy. In M. Castells & G. Cardoso (Eds.), The network society: From knowledge to policy (pp. 3–22). Washington, DC: John Hopkins Center for Transatlantic Relations. Retrieved from http://www.umass.edu/digitalcenter/research/pdfs/JF_NetworkSociety.pdf.Google Scholar
- Dauenhauer, N. M., & Dauenhauer, R. (1998). Technical, emotional, and ideological issues in reversing language shift: Examples from Southeast Alaska. In L. A. Grenoble & L. J. Whaley (Eds.), Endangered languages: Language loss and community response (pp. 57–98). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- First Peoples’ Heritage, Language and Culture Council. (2010). Report on the status of B.C. First Nations Languages 2010. Retrieved from http://www.fpcc.ca/files/PDF/2010-report-on-the-status-of-bc-first-nations-languages.pdf.
- Fishman, J. A. (2008). Why is it so hard to save a threatened language? (A perspective on the cases that follow). In J. A. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatened languages be saved? Reversing language shift, revisited: A 21st century perspective (pp. 1–22). Multilingual Matters 116. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. (Original work published in 2001).Google Scholar
- Galloway, B. (2009). Dictionary of upriver Halkomelem (Vol. 1). University of California Press. Retrieved from http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/65r158r4.
- Grenier, L. (1998). Working with indigenous knowledge: A guide for researchers. Ottawa, ON: IDRC.Google Scholar
- Hinton, L. (2008a). Language revitalization: An overview. In L. Hinton & K. Hale (Eds.), The green book of language revitalization in practice (3rd ed., pp. 3–18). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Hinton, L. (2008b). Learning and teaching endangered indigenous languages. In N. Van Deusen-Scholl & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (2nd ed., Vol. 4: Second and Foreign Language Education, pp. 157–67). Cham: Springer Science + Business Media LLC.Google Scholar
- Kaplan, D. M. (Ed.). (2009). Readings in the philosophy of technology (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
- Kipp, D. (2009). Encouragement, guidance and lessons learned: 21 years in the trenches of indigenous language revitalization. In J. Reyhner & L. Lockard (Eds.), Indigenous language revitalization: Encouragement, guidance & lessons learned (pp. 1–9). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. Retrieved from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILR/.Google Scholar
- Kirkness, V. J. (1998). The critical state of aboriginal languages in Canada. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 22(1), 93–107.Google Scholar
- Konrad, A. M., Prasad, P., & Pringle, J. K. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of workplace diversity. London, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
- Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
- Luker, K. (2008). Salsa dancing into the social sciences: Research in an age of info-glut. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Makagon, D., & Neumann, M. (2008). Recording culture: Audio documentary and the ethnographic experience. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
- Nesbit, T., & Martin, A. (2016). The interdisciplinary nature of the skills needed by project managers. Journal of Applied Computing and Information Technology, 16(1).Google Scholar
- Norris, M. J. (2009). The role of first nations women in language continuity and transition. In G. G. Valaskakis, M. D. Stout, & E. Guimond (Eds.), Restoring the balance: First nations women, community, and culture (pp. 313–353). Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
- Sepass, B., & Knickerbocker, M. (2013). “Bring home the canoe”: Travelling through Sto:lo history with Chief William Sepass’ shovel-nosed canoe. Sharing Experience & Building Knowledge. Chilliwack, BC.Google Scholar
- Shenhar, A. J., & Dvir, D. (2007). Project management research—The challenge and opportunity. Project Management Journal, 38(2), 93–99.Google Scholar
- Smith, D. A. (2001). History revealed through Salishan languages. In K. T. Carlson (Ed.), A Sto:lo-Coast Salish historical atlas (Vol. 21). Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, Ltd. and Sto:lo Nation.Google Scholar
- Smith, L. T. (2002). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London, UK: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
- Statistics and Measurement Directorate. (2007). Aboriginal demography—Population, household and family projections, 2001–2026. Catalogue: R3-62/2007. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Retrieved from https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/ai_rs_pubs_sts_ad_ad_1309454434736_eng.pdf.
- Wagner, M., & Urios-Aparisi, E. (2008). Pragmatics of humor in the foreign language classroom: Learning (with) humor. In M. Putz & J. A. N.-V. Aertselaer (Eds.), Studies on language acquisition: Developing contrastive pragmatics: Interlanguage and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 209–228). Berlin, DEU: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Zhao, Y. (2003). Recent developments in technology and language learning: A literature review and meta-analysis. CALICO Journal, 21(1), 7–27.Google Scholar