• Ertuğrul Aksoy
  • Gökhan Özsoy
  • Ekin Ulaş Karaata
  • Duygu Boyraz
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)


Kastanozems are one of the Reference Soil Groups of “zonal” soils and are found mostly in the short grass steppe belt with Chernozems. Kastanozems have a brownish humus-rich surface horizon (less deep and less black than that of the Chernozems) and they show prominent accumulation of secondary carbonates in the sub(surface) soil. The chestnut-brown color of the surface soil gives their name “Kastanozem”. In Turkey, Kastanozems usually occur in regions where the climate is relatively cool in winter and hot in summer, under the grassland, bushland, and the cultivated lands which are recently gained by deforestation. Kastanozems are mostly characterized by the accumulation of calcium carbonate to the subsurface horizon and humus-rich dark brown surface horizon development. They can be observed in Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and Eastern Anatolia regions of Turkey and they are mostly developed over calcareous and sedimentary rocks. The Kastanozems profiles in Turkey have mostly A-B-C horizon designation with the calcic horizon. But sometimes calcic horizon is not observed in some profiles. There can be observed a cambic or argic B horizon and with lime/gypsum accumulation in or below their B horizon. They have a shallow profile and have adequate organic matter levels. Kastanozems occupy about 10.7% of Turkish lands in association with Rendzic Fluvisol/Haplic Cambisol/Luvic Kastanozems (7.5%), Haplic Kastanozems/Haplic Cambisol (3.2%), and Dystric Leptosol/Haplic Kastanozem (0.036%).


  1. Aksoy E, Panagos P, Montanarella L, Jones A (2010) Integration of the Soli Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1,000,000. Research Report. European Commission Joint Research Centre—Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Publications Office of European Union, Luxembourg, 45 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Aydınalp C, Aslan Y (2003a) Classification of great soil groups in the Antalya basin, according to FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA (1998) Systems. Anadolu J AARI 13(2):117–139 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  3. Aydınalp C, Aslan Y (2003b) Classification of great soil groups in the West Black Sea basin, FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA (1998) Systems. Anadolu J AARI 13(1):188–200 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  4. Aydınalp C, FitzPatrick EA (2004) Classification of great soil groups in the east Black Sea basin according to international soil classification systems. J Cent Eur Agric 5(2):119–126Google Scholar
  5. Boyraz D, Cangir C (2009) The management and classification of the typical soils of the Yıldız forest ecosystem. J Tekirdağ Agric Faculty, 6(1):65–77Google Scholar
  6. Boysan S, Çimrin KM (2006) Determination of the fixation of the wheat growing soils in the Lake Van Basin. J Agron 5(2):196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ekinci H (1990) The applicability of to the Turkish general soil map in thrace, a case study. Çukurova University, Ph.D. thesis, 218 p (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  8. IUSS Working Group WRB (2015) World reference base for soil resources 2014, update 2015 international soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World soil resources reports No. 106. FAO, Rome, 203 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Kibar M, Kıymet D, Sarıoğlu FE (2012) The morphology, mineralogy, geochemistry and physical implications of foid bearing syenite and syenite-carbonate rocks contact zone soils. Eurasian J Soil Sci 2:69–74Google Scholar
  10. Özden MO, Dinç U, Kapur S, Akça E, Şenol S, Dinç AO (2001) Soil geographical database of Turkey at a scale 1:1.000.000—4th approximation. Research Report. Agriculture Services Ministry National Information Center for Soil and Water Resources & Çukurova University Soil Science Department Collaboration, Ankara-Adana, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  11. Özsoy G (2001) Soils of the Uludağ University campus area, their genesis and classification. Uludağ University, Institute of Applied Sciences. MSc thesis, BursaGoogle Scholar
  12. Özsoy G, Aksoy E (2007) Characterization, classification and agricultural use of developed on Neogen aged calcareous marl parent materials. J Biol Environ Sci 1(1):5–10Google Scholar
  13. Özsoy G, Aksoy E (2012) Genesis and classification of some developed under forest vegetation in Bursa, Turkey. Int J Agric Biol 14:75–80Google Scholar
  14. Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edn. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, USA, p 372Google Scholar
  15. Tóth G, Montanarella L, Stolbovoy V, Máté F, Bódis K, Jones A, Panagos P, Van Liedekerke M (2008) Soils of the European Union. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ertuğrul Aksoy
    • 1
  • Gökhan Özsoy
    • 1
  • Ekin Ulaş Karaata
    • 1
  • Duygu Boyraz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionUludağ UniversityBursaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionNamık Kemal UniversityTekirdağTurkey

Personalised recommendations