Deeper than Deep Ecology: The Eco-Feminist Connection

  • Ariel Salleh


This chapter offers a feminist critique of deep ecology as presented in the seminal papers of Ame Naess and Bill Devall. It outlines the fundamental premises involved and analyzes their internal coherence. Not only are there problems on logical grounds, but the tacit methodological approaches of the two papers are inconsistent with the deep ecologists’ own substantive comments. It discusses these shortcomings in terms of a broader feminist critique of patriarchal culture and points out some practical and theoretical contributions which eco-feminism can make to genuinely deep ecology problematic.


  1. Devall, Bill. 1980. The Deep Ecology Movement. Natural Resources Journal 20 (31): 299–322.Google Scholar
  2. Naess, Arne. 1973. The Shallow and the Deep, Long Range Ecology Movement. Inquiry 16: 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pettitt, Ann. 1982. Women Only at Greenham. Undercurrents 57: 20–21.Google Scholar
  4. Rodman, John. 1977. The Liberation of Nature? Inquiry 20: 83–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Salleh, Ariel. 1981. Of Portnoy’s Complaint and Feminist Problematics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 17 (1): 4–13.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 1983. Ecology and Ideology. Chain Reaction 31: 2–21.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 1984a. Contribution to the Critique of Political Epistemology. Thesis Eleven 8: 23–43.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 1984b. The Growth of Eco-feminism. Chain Reaction 36: 26–28.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1984c. Whither the Green Machine? Australian Society 3: 15–17.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 1985. From Feminism to Ecology. Social Alternatives 4 (3): 8–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel Salleh
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations