Advertisement

Women Entrepreneurs in Korea

  • Ji-Hye Park
  • Hyunok Ryu
Chapter
Part of the Current Perspectives on Asian Women in Leadership book series (CPAWL)

Abstract

Women entrepreneurs have recently been receiving public attention in Korea as it is considered that women’s entrepreneurship development has enormous potential not only in empowering women, but also in helping the country strengthen its economic position. The number of women entrepreneurs is growing in Korea; however, it is still far lower than those of other countries, and the discrepancy in the ratio of women-to-men entrepreneurs is noticeable. To provide suggestions for future research and public policies with regard to the development of women’s entrepreneurship in Korea, Chap. 9 reviews definitions of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Korea, the relationship of entrepreneurship to leadership, the status of women entrepreneurs in Korea, research on Korean women entrepreneurs, the Korean government’s support and its effectiveness, and three cases of Korean women entrepreneurs.

References

  1. Ahn, J., & Jeong, Y. (2015, August 10). 매각설 불거진 한경희생활과학에 무슨 일이 [What happened to Haan Corp., with the corporation sell-off rumors]. Retrieved from http://www.hankyung.com/news/app/newsview.php?aid=2015081056041. (in Korean).
  2. Bagheri, A., & Pihie, Z. A. L. (2011). Entrepreneurial leadership: Towards a model for learning and development. Human Resource Development International, 14(4), 447–463. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2011.601594 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahn, S., Seo, S., Song, K., Park, J., Cha, M., Cho, M., et al. (2015). GEM Korea 2013 report: National entrepreneurial assessment for the republic of Korea. Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do: Korea Institute for Global Entrepreneurship (KIGE), Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology (GNTECH).Google Scholar
  4. Bosma, N., Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., Coduras, A., & Levie, J. (2009). Global entrepreneurship monitor: 2008 executive report. Retrieved from http://entreprenorskapsforum.se/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/GEM-Global-Report_2008.pdf
  5. Cardon, M. S., Stevens, C. E., & Potter, D. R. (2011). Misfortunes or mistakes: Cultural sensemaking of entrepreneurial failure. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chafkin, M. (2011, December). The returnees. Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/magazine/201112/the-returnees.html
  7. Cho, E., & Kim, J. (2014). 혁신적인 청소 제품, 한경희 스팀청소기 사례 연구 [A case study on the innovative cleaning product, HAAN steam cleaner]. Business Management Research, 7(2), 51–74. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  8. Choi, T. Y., & Lee, S. S. (2007). 여성기업의 경영자 특성과 기업성과간의 관계 연구 [The study of relations between CED characteristics and performance of woman’s enterprise]. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 2(3), 123–143. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  9. Chun, B. (2002). 여성 중소기업인의 창업과 경영방식: 우리 나라와 미국의 경험 [Characteristics of their start-up process and management style: Women entrepreneurs in SMEs in Korea and in the United States]. The Korean Small Business Review, 24(2), 61–87. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  10. Cogliser, C. C., & Brigham, K. H. (2004). The intersection of leadership and entrepreneurship: Mutual lessons to be learned. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 771–799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Debroux, P. (2008). Female entrepreneurship in Asia: The case of Japan, South-Korea, Malaysia and Vietnam. The Review of Business Administration, 37(1–3), 1–24.Google Scholar
  12. DeMartino, R., Barbato, R., & Jacques, P. H. (2006). Exploring the career/achievement and personal life orientation differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs: The impact of sex and dependents. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(3), 350–368. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2006.00176.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eyal, O., & Kark, R. (2004). How do transformational leaders transform organizations? A study of the relationship between leadership and entrepreneurship. Leadership and Policy in School, 3(3), 209–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760490503715 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Feloni, R. (2014, June 3). How this entrepreneur became one of Korea’s most powerful business women. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/haan-corporation-romi-haan-korean-power-woman-2014-6
  15. Gupta, V. K., Guo, C., Canever, M., Yim, H. R., Sraw, G. K., & Liu, M. (2014). Institutional environment for entrepreneurship in rapidly emerging major economics: The case of Brazil, China, India, and Korea. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10, 367–384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-012-0221-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta, V. K., Yayla, A. A., Sikdar, A., & Cha, M.-S. (2012). Institutional environment for entrepreneurship: Evidence from the developmental states of South Korea and United Arab Emirates. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 17(3), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946712500136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Han, J. W., & Baeg, Y. J. (2003). 여성벤처기업의 창업동기와 경영특성에 관한 탐색적 연구 [An exploratory study of business start-up reasons of women entrepreneurs and management characteristics]. The Korean Small Business Review, 25(3), 329–355. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  18. Han, Y. (2010). Impeding factors of women’s entrepreneurship in Korea: Debate on inherence vs ambiance. Journal of the Korean Entrepreneurship Society, 5(3), 121–137.Google Scholar
  19. Hisrich, R. D., & Brush, C. (1985). Women and minority entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis. In J. A. Hornaday, E. B. Shils, J. A. Timmons, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurial research (pp. 566–587). Boston, MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
  20. Hisrich, R. D., Peters, M. P., & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). Entrepreneurship (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  21. Ju, H., Lee, H., Kim, T., & Park, S. (2010). 강진 병영상인에 관한 역사적 재조명 [Gangjin Byeongyeong merchant’s historical reviews]. The Review of Business History, 25(4), 67–95. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  22. Kelley, D., Brush, C., Greene, P., Herrington, M., Ali, A., & Kew, P. (2015). GEM special report: Women’s entrepreneurship, GEM.Google Scholar
  23. Kim, E. (2017, January 12). 벤처 신화 한영희의 성공과 좌절 [Success and hardship of Kyung-hee Haan, the venture legend]. Retrieved from http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/economy/consumer/778464.html. (in Korean).
  24. Kim, J. (2016, September 7). 태교 위해 배운 뜨개질로 1인 창업, DIY 붐으로 매출 30억 업체 성장 [One-person business established by knitting of prenatal education grew to make 3 million USD in sales due to the DIY boom]. Retrieved from http://www.hankyung.com/news/app/newsview.php?aid=2016090752441. (in Korean).
  25. Kim, S. P., Bahn, S. S., Cho, D. H., & Park, J. H. (2010). 한국의 여성 창업성향 변화에 관한 실증분석 [An empirical study on the change of female entrepreneurial propensity in Korea]. Entrepreneurship and Venture, 13(1), 1–21. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  26. Koellinger, P., Minniti, M., & Schade, C. (2013). Gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 75, 213–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0084.2011.00689.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuratko, D. F. (2009). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, practice (8th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  28. Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31, 341–364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00177.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, G. (2015a, March 17). 한경희생활과학, 한경희 이름 때문에 컸지만 한계 봉착 [Haan Corp., the name of Haan made the company grow but also limits it]. Retrieved from http://www.businesspost.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=10506. (in Korean).
  30. Lee, H. (2015b). 여성의 창업을 통해 본 기업가정신과 젠더전략 [Entrepreneurship and gender strategy viewed in terms of women’s business start-up]. Women’s Studies, 25(3), 99–140. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  31. Lee, J. (2014, August 5). 뜨개질은 女가 하는데 유통은 온통 남자 [Knitters are women, but distributors are men]. Retrieved from http://www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2014080513035241919. (in Korean).
  32. Lee, J. H., Sohn, S. Y., & Ju, Y. H. (2011). How effective is government support for Korean women entrepreneurs in small and medium enterprises? Journal of Small Business Management, 49(4), 599–616. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2011.00338.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee, S. S., & Stearns, T. M. (2012). Critical success factors in the performance of female-owned businesses: A study of female entrepreneurs in Korea. International Journal of Management, 29(1), 3–18. 10.12691/jbe-2-4-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee, S. S., Stearns, T. M., Osteryoung, J. S., & Stephenson, H. B. (2009). A comparison of the critical success factors in women-owned business between the United States and Korea. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 5, 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-009-0110-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lewis, K. V. (2015). Enacting entrepreneurship and leadership: A longitudinal exploration of gendered identity work. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(3), 662–682. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ma, Y., & Jang, S. (2009). 여성 기업가의 특성과 창업지원정책이 경영성과에 미치는 영향 [The influence of the women entrepreneur’s characteristics and entrepreneurial supporting policy on the managerial performances]. Journal of the Korean Institute of Industry & Technology, 10(12), 3856–3862. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  37. Malach-Pines, A., & Schwartz, D. (2008). Now you see them, now you don’t: Gender differences in entrepreneurship. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(7), 881–832. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940810896358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. OECD. (2016a). Employment outlook 2016. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/korea/Employment-Outlook-Korea-EN.pdf
  39. OECD. (2016b). Women entrepreneurship: Key findings: Korea. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/std/business-stats/EaG-Korea-Eng.pdf
  40. Oh, H. M., Lee, C. Y., & Kim, J. S. (2014). 여성창업가의 심리적, 환경적, 개인적 특성이 창업동기와 창업성과에 미치는 영향 [The study on the women entrepreneurs’ psychological, environmental, personal factors affecting on entrepreneurial motivation and performance]. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 9(2), 45–60. (in Korean).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orhan, M., & Scott, D. (2001). Why women enter into entrepreneurship: An explanatory model. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 232–243. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420110395719 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Park, G. (2008, November 27). 손뜨개 전문점 바늘이야기 송영예 사장 [Young Ye Song, CEO of a knitting company, Banul Story]. Retrieved from http://www.newshankuk.com/news/content.asp?fs=12&ss=57&news_idx=2008112711213793372. (in Korean).
  43. Park, K. (2015, July 17). 여성경제인, 경영애로 한목소리 내야 [Women entrepreneurs should speak with one voice]. Jeonbuk Domin Ilbo. Retrieved from http://www.domin.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=1074416. (in Korean).
  44. Park, S. (2016, April). 한경희생활과학 한경희 대표 [Romi Haan, the CEO of Haan corporation]. Retrieved from http://m.ilyoseoul.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=131410. (in Korean).
  45. Pines, A. M., Lerner, M., & Schwartz, D. (2010). Gender differences in entrepreneurship equality, diversity and inclusion in times of global crisis. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 29(2), 186–198. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610151011024493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sarri, K., & Trihopoulou, A. (2005). Female entrepreneurs’ personal characteristics and motivation: A review of the Greek situation. Women in Management Review, 20(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420510579559 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schroeder, L. (2011, September 7). Korean women use invention to jump over gender gap. Retrieved from http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/n_feature/2011/09/07/84/4901000000AEN20110907006800315F.HTML
  48. Spencer, J. W., & Gomez, C. (2004). The relationship among national institutional structures, economic factors, and domestic entrepreneurial activity: A multi-country study. Journal of Business Research, 57(10), 1098–1107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(03)00040-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SMBA·KWBA. (2014). 20143 여성기업백서 [2013 white paper on women entrepreneurs]. Small and Medium Business Administration (SMBA)/Korean Women Entrepreneurs Association (KWBA). Retrieved from http://www.wbiz.or.kr/m/board/BD_board.view.do?seq=20141120110005534&bbsCd=1007&pageType=&showSummaryYn=N&delDesc=&domCd=1&q_searchKeyType=&q_searchKey=&q_searchVal=&q_startDt=&q_endDt=&q_rowPerPage=10&q_currPage=1&q_sortName=&q_sortOrder= (in Korean).
  50. Statistics Korea. (2016). The annual trend of new enterprises by gender [Data file]. Retrieved from http://kosis.kr/statHtml/statHtml.do?orgId=142&tblId=DT_142N_A10253&conn_path=I3
  51. Tambunan, T. (2009). Women entrepreneurship in Asian developing countries: Their development and main constraints. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 1(2), 27–40.Google Scholar
  52. Teoh, W. M. Y., & Chong, S. C. (2014). Towards strengthening the development of women entrepreneurship in Malaysia. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29(7), 432–453. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-10-2013-0122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van der Zwan, P., Verheul, I., & Thurik, A. R. (2012). The entrepreneurial ladder, gender and regional development. Small Business Economics, 39(1), 627–643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-011-9334-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Welsh, D. H., Kim, G., Memili, E., & Kaciak, E. (2014). The influence of family moral support and personal problems on firm performance: The case of Korean female entrepreneurs. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 19(3), 1450018-1–1450018-17. https://doi.org/10.1142/S108494671500186 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Woo, Y. H., & Lee, B. Y. (2015). 초등학생의 리더십이 창업가정신에 미치는 영향 [A study on the influence of elementary school students’ leadership on entrepreneur spirit: Focused on the moderating effects of career recognition]. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, 10(6), 261–268. (in Korean).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yang, I. S., & Kang, M. J. (2012). 여성기업 육성 정책의 새로운 패러다임 모색 [Exploring new paradigm for policies for enterprises owned by women]. Korean Women’s Development Institute. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  57. Yang, S., & Kim, B. (2012). 김만덕의 기업가정신에 대한 연구 [A study on the entrepreneurship of Kim Man Deok]. The Review of Business History, 27(2), 235–258. (in Korean).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ji-Hye Park
    • 1
  • Hyunok Ryu
    • 2
  1. 1.Kookmin UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations