Women’s Leadership in Family Business Organizations

  • Jung-Jin Kim
  • Sang-Joon Kim
Part of the Current Perspectives on Asian Women in Leadership book series (CPAWL)


In Chap. 8, the literature on family business and family issues as they relate to family businesses is reviewed. Focusing on women-led family businesses, gender issues, and the role of women in leadership in Korea are discussed. Specifically, three aspects entailed in family business are explicated: family embeddedness, including gender roles and work-family conflict; women’s leadership in the context of business succession; and structural barriers in women’s career development, such as glass ceiling effects and self-selection issues signifying what influences women with regard to entering entrepreneurship. As an independent agent to deal with gendered issues, successful family businesses (especially those led by women) have important implications for gender issues, and thus the success of women-led family businesses has significant social impact on Korean society.


  1. Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 573–596. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Astrachan, J. H., Allen, I. E., & Spinelli, S. (2002). Mass Mutual/Raymond Institute American family business survey. Springfield, MA: Mass Mutual Financial Group.Google Scholar
  3. Astrachan, J. H., & Shanker, M. C. (2003). Family businesses’ contribution to the U.S. economy: A closer look. Family Business Review, 16, 211–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azmat, F., & Fujimoto, Y. (2016). Family embeddedness and entrepreneurship experience: A study of Indian migrant women entrepreneurs in Australia. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 28, 630–656. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes, L. B. (1988). Incongruent hierarchies: Daughters and younger sons as company CEOs. Family Business Review, 1, 9–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baxter, J., & Wright, E. O. (2000). The glass ceiling hypothesis. A comparative study of the United States, Sweden, and Australia. Gender & Society, 14, 275–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beckhard, R., & Burke, W. (1983). Preface. Organizational Dynamics, 12, 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benschop, Y., & Brouns, M. (2009). The trouble with the glass ceiling: Critical reflections on a famous concept. In J. W. Cox, T. G. LeTrent-Jones, M. Voronov, & D. Weir (Eds.), Critical management studies at work: Negotiating tensions between theory and practice (pp. 259–270). London: Edward Elgar. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birley, S. (1986). Succession in the family firm: The inheritor’s view. Journal of Small Business Management, 24, 36–43.Google Scholar
  10. Brush, C. G., de Bruin, A. M., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1, 8–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brush, C. G., & Manolova, T. (2004). The household structure variables in the PSED questionnaire. In W. B. Gartner, K. G. Shaver, N. M. Carter, & P. D. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of entrepreneurial dynamics: The process of organization creation (pp. 39–47). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Budig, M. J. (2006). Intersections on the road to self-employment: Gender, family, and occupational class. Social Forces, 84, 2223–2238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burkart, M., Panunzi, F., & Shleifer, A. (2003). Family firms. Journal of Finance, 58, 2167–2201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burton, M. D., Sørensen, J. B., & Dobrev, S. D. (2016). A careers perspective on entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40, 237–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cabrera-Suarez, K., De Saa-Perez, P., & Garcia-Almeida, D. (2001). The succession process from a resource- and knowledge-based view of the family firm. Family Business Review, 14, 37–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, D. (1996). Two paths to self-employment? Women’s and men’s self-employment in the United States, 1980. Work and Occupations, 23, 26–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cennamo, C., Berrone, P., Cruz, C., & Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (2012). Socioemotional wealth and proactive stakeholder engagement: Why family-controlled firms care more about their stakeholders. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 1153–1173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Sharma, P. (1998). Important attributes of successors in family businesses: An exploratory study. Family Business Review, 11, 19–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., & Sharma, P. (1999). Defining the family business by behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23, 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., Steier, L. P., & Rau, S. B. (2012). Sources of heterogeneity in family firms: An introduction. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 1103–1113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Connelly, R. (1992). Self-employment and providing child-care. Demography, 29, 17–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Curimbaba, F. (2002). The dynamics of women’s roles as family business managers. Family Business Review, 15, 239–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danes, S. M., & Olson, P. D. (2003). Women’s role involvement in family businesses, business tensions, and business success. Family Business Review, XVI, 53–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dimova, A., Gang, I., & Landon-Lane, J. (2006). Where to work? The role of the household in explaining gender differences in labour market outcomes (IZA Discussion Paper No. 2476). Retrieved from SSRN:
  25. Dumas, C. A. (1989). Understanding of father-daughter and father-son dyads in family-owned businesses. Family Business Review, 2, 31–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dyer, W. G., Jr. (1986). Cultural changes in family firms: Anticipating and managing business and family transitions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  27. Ekinsmyth, C. (2011). Challenging the boundaries of entrepreneurship: The spatialities and practices of UK ‘mumpreneurs’. Geoforum, 42, 104–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ekinsmyth, C. (2013). Managing the business of everyday life: The roles of space and place in “mumpreneurship”. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 19, 525–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fitzgerald, M. A., & Muske, G. (2002). Copreneurs: An exploration and comparison to other family businesses. Family Business Review, XV, 1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Francis, A. E. (1999). The daughter also rises. San Francisco: Rudi Pub.Google Scholar
  31. Friedland, R., & Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 232–263). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Goffee, R., & Scase, R. (1985). Women in charge: The experience of female entrepreneurs. London, UK: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  33. Goldberg, S. D. (1996). Research note: Effective successors in family-owned businesses: Significant elements. Family Business Review, 9, 185–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481–510. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Greene, P. G., Brush, C. G., & Gatewood, E. J. (2006). Perspectives on women entrepreneurs: Past findings and new directions. In M. Minitti (Ed.), Entrepreneurship: The engine of growth, Vol. 1. People (pp. 181–204). New York: Praeger Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Han, H.-J. (2014). 공인문기(貢人文記)를 통해 본 조선후기 여성의 상업 활동과 소유의식 [A study on the commercial activities and ownership of women in the Late Chosun Dynasty]. The Chosun Dynasty History Association, 69, 233–264. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  37. Han, S.-K. (2008). 한국 재벌 가문의 단일성 폭과 깊이 [Breadth and depth of unity among chaebol families in Korea]. Korean Journal of Sociology, 42, 1–25.Google Scholar
  38. Handler, W. (1994). Succession in family business: A review of the research. Family Business Review, VII, 133–157. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harvey, M., & Evans, R. E. (1994). Family business and multiple levels of conflict. Family Business Review, 7, 331–348. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heck, R. K. Z., Hoy, F., Poutziouris, P. Z., & Steier, L. P. (2008). Emerging paths of family entrepreneurship research. Journal of Small Business Management, 46, 317–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hollander, B. S., & Bukowitz, W. R. (1990). Women, family culture and family business. Family Business Review, 3, 139–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hwang, J. Y., & Kim, J. H. (2013). 미국 내 한인 여성 사업가의 이중주변화 [The double marginalization of the Korean American woman business owners]. Journal of Diaspora Studies, 7, 59–88. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  43. Jeong, Y.-K. (2004). 가족친화적 정책을 통한 일-가족 균형에 관한 연구 [A study on the work-family balance based on the family friendly policy]. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 22, 91–100. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  44. Jeong, Y.-K. (2011). 일생에 걸친 경력관리를 통한 일-생활 균형에 관한 기초연구 [A preliminary study on work-life balance through career management over the lifespan]. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 29, 41–53. (in Korean).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kang, H., Ku, J., & Kim, H. (2011). 가족친화 기업모델 및 사례연구 [Family-friendly business models and case studies]. Korea: Ministry of the Gender Equality and Family. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  46. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  47. Kets de Vries, M. (1993). The dynamics of family controlled firms: The good news and the bad news. Organizational Dynamics, 21, 59–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kim, H.-J. (2011). 일-가정 양립 정책에 대한 젠더 비평적 분석 [Gender critical analysis about work-family balance policy]. Feminism Studies, 21, 113–152. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  49. Kim, S. (2015). 여성경제활동 양상의 변화(2000–2013) [Women’s economic participation in Korea (2000–2013)]. The Journal of Political Science & Communication, 18, 223–248. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  50. Kim, S.-H., Chae, S.-J., & Lee, H.-Y. (2010). 지배구조 및 소유구조가 회계정보의 보수성에 미치는 영향 [The effects of corporate governance and ownership structure over conservatism of accounting information: Focusing on family-firm]. Korean Management Review, 39, 797–833. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  51. Kim, Y.-S., & Ok, S.-W. (2005). 가족기업 종사자의 일-가족갈등 및 직업만족도와 생활만족도 [Work-family conflict, job satisfaction and life satisfaction of family business workers]. Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 23, 223–239. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  52. Lee, K. S., Lim, G. H., & Lim, W. S. (2003). Family business succession: Appropriation risk and choice of successor. Academy of Management Review, 28, 657–666. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, Y. G., Danes, S. M., & Shelley, M. C. (2006). Work roles, management and perceived well-being for married women within family businesses. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 27, 523–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mari, M., & Poggesi, S. (2016). Family embeddedness and business performance: Evidences from women-owned firms. Management Decision, 54, 476–500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshack, K. (1994). Copreneurs and dual career couples, are they different? Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 19, 49–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McManus, P. (2000). Market, state, and the quality of new self-employment jobs among men in the U.S. and Western Germany. Social Forces, 78, 865–905. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Minniti, M. (2009). Gender issues in entrepreneurship. Foundations and trends in entrepreneurship. Boston, MA: Now Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  58. Moore, D., & Buttner, H. (1997). Women entrepreneurs: Moving beyond the glass ceiling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  59. Morrison, A. M., & von Glinow, M. A. (1990). Women and minorities in management. American Psychologist, 45, 200–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morrison, A. M., White, R. P., & Van Velsor, E. (1994). Breaking the glass ceiling: Can women reach the top of America’s largest corporations? (Updated ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  61. Nam, Y., & Park, G. (2008). 가족기업론 [Family business]. Seoul: Chungmok. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  62. Noor, N. (2004). Work-family conflict, work- and family-role salience and women’s well-being. Journal of Social Psychology, 144, 389–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Park, K.-J., & Lee, C. (2011). 중소, 중견 가족기업의 2세 경영승계교육훈련에 관한 6개사 관찰 연구 [A case study on training and development of 2nd generation successor in 6 Korean small and medium sized family business]. Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business, 33, 196–219. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  64. Park, S., Shin, H., & Park, K. (2010). 가족기업의 기업지배구조적 특성이 기업 가치 및 경영 성과에 미치는 영향 [The effects of governance characteristics of family firms on firm value and performance: Evidence from Korea]. Korean Journal of Business Research, 25, 163–195. (in Korean).Google Scholar
  65. Patrick, C., Stephens, H., & Weinstein, A. (2016). Where are all the self-employed women? Push and pull factors influencing female labor market decisions. Small Business Economics, 46, 365–390. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Philbrick, C., & Fitzgerald, M. (2007). Women in business-owning families: A comparison of roles, responsibilities and predictors of family functionality. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28, 618–634. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Poggesi, S., Mari, M., & De Vita, L. (2016). What’s new in female entrepreneurship research? Answers from the literature. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12, 735–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Poza, E. J., & Messer, T. (2001). Spousal leadership and continuity in the family firm. Family Business Review, 14, 25–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Presser, H. (1995). Job, family, and gender: Determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991. Demography, 32, 577–598. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Renzulli, L., Aldrich, H., & Moody, J. (2000). Family matters: Gender, networks, and entrepreneurial outcomes. Social Forces, 79, 523–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Royer, S., Simons, R., Boyd, B., & Rafferty, A. (2008). Promoting family: A contingency model of family business succession. Family Business Review, 21, 15–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sharma, P. (2004). An overview of the field of family business studies: Current status and directions for the future. Family Business Review, 17, 1–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharma, P., Chrisman, J. J., Pablo, A. L., & Chau, J. H. (2001). Determinants of initial satisfaction with the succession process in family firms: A conceptual model. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25, 17–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shelton, L. M. (2006). Female entrepreneurs, work-family conflict, and venture performance: New insights into the work-family interface. Journal of Small Business Management, 44, 285–297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shore, R. (1998). Ahead of the curve: Why America’s leading employers are addressing the needs of new and expectant parents. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
  76. Spence, D. L., & Lonner, T. D. (1979). Career set: A resource through transitions and crises. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 9, 51–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stafford, K., Duncan, K. A., Danes, S. M., & Winter, M. (1999). A research model of sustainable family businesses. Family Business Review, 12, 197–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Taniguchi, H. (2002). Determinants of women’s entry into self-employment. Social Science Quarterly, 83, 875–893. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thornton, P. H., Ocasio, W., & Lounsbury, M. (2012). The institutional logics perspective: A new approach to culture, structure and process. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vadnjal, J., & Zupan, B. (2009). The role of women in family businesses. Economic and Business Review, 11, 159–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang, C. (2010). Daughter exclusion in family business succession: A review of the literature. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 31, 475–484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ward, J. L. (1987). Keeping the family business healthy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  83. Yoon, B.-S., & Pang, S.-Y. (2013). 가족기업의 승계와 후계자의 어머니 역할 [Succession of the family business and the role of successors’ mother]. Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business, 35, 19–40. (in Korean).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jung-Jin Kim
    • 1
  • Sang-Joon Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Seoul Women’s UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Ewha Womans UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations