Household Water Insecurity in Different Settlement Categories of Ngamiland, Botswana

  • Krasposy Kujinga
  • Cornelis Vanderpost
  • Gagoitseope Mmopelwa
  • Wellington R. L. Masamba
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


The attainment of water security is a major challenge confronting Botswana, a semi-arid country. This chapter analyzes household water security challenges in different settlement categories (i.e. primary centers, tertiary centers and ungazetted villages) of Ngamiland, Botswana. Informed by the concepts of security, water security and human security, the study used a survey of 554 households and qualitative data, collected through key informant interviews, participant observation, focus group discussions and informal interviews. The results of the study established that households across all settlement categories of Ngamiland encounter water insecurity in terms of availability and quality. Gazetted settlements households go for prolonged periods without water supply services. Households in ungazetted settlements use water from unprotected sources. The chapter concludes that the majority of households in different settlement categories are water insecure and this has negative effects on human security. Botswana has to put in place a water policy which emphasises the attainment water security and human security. Strategies and programmes aimed at enhancing household water security in both gazetted and ungazetted settlements have to be underpinned by scientific research.



This paper is part of a study being carried out at the Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, for a PhD degree in Natural Resources Management. Carnegie-RISE provided funding for the work. Special thanks to WUC, DWA and NWDC officials, the study communities and all those who contributed in various ways.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krasposy Kujinga
    • 1
  • Cornelis Vanderpost
    • 2
  • Gagoitseope Mmopelwa
    • 3
  • Wellington R. L. Masamba
    • 4
  1. 1.WaterNetHarareZimbabwe
  2. 2.Okavango Research InstituteUniversity of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceUniversity of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana
  4. 4.Botswana International University of Science and TechnologyPalapyeBotswana

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