Advertisement

The Status of Women’s Political Empowerment Worldwide

  • Senem Ertan
  • Catalina Monroy
  • Juan Pablo Vallejo
  • Germán Romero
  • Ana Catalina Erazo
Chapter
Part of the Gender and Politics book series (GAP)

Abstract

Measuring women’s political empowerment (WPE) poses an important challenge. Approaches to an empirical understanding of WPE are not thoroughly consolidated, thus preventing a comprehensive explanation of the status of women’s political empowerment globally. In this chapter, we contribute to the research on women’s political empowerment, adding a new dimension related to security and equality issues. We argue that to understand WPE globally, academic approaches must consider variables on the security status of women worldwide. To fill this gap, we developed a multivariable index using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as our main methodological strategy. The results provide researchers with inputs that will help explain women’s political empowerment through multidimensional components.

References

  1. Aguayo, E., & Lamelas, N. (2012). Midiendo el Empoderamiento Femenino en América Latina. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, 12(2), 1–10. Retrieved from http://www.usc.es/economet/reviews/eers12213.pdf
  2. Alexander, A. C., Bolzendahl, C., & Jalalzai, F. (2016). Defining Women’s Global Political Empowerment: Theories and Evidence. Sociology Compass, 10(6), 432–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alsop, R., & Heinsohn, N. (2005). Measuring Empowerment in Practice: Structuring Analysis and Framing Indicators. World Bank Research Working Paper, 35, 6–32. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEMPOWERMENT/Resources/41307_wps3510.pdf
  4. Buckley, M., & Anderson, M. (1988). Introduction: Problems, Policies and Politics. In M. Buckley & M. Anderson (Eds.), Women, Equality and Europe (pp. 1–19). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Darcy, R., Welch, S., & Clark, J. (1994). Women, Elections and Representation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  6. Duverger, M. (1955). The Political Role of Women. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  7. European Institute for Gender Equality. (2012). Gender Equality Index. Retrieved from http://eige.europa.eu/gender-statistics/gender-equality-index
  8. Ertan, S. (2016). How to Study Gender Equality Policy Cross-Nationally? Aggregate or Disaggregate Gender Equality Policy Indices? Social Indicators Research, 125(1), 47–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gardiner, F. (1997). Introduction: Welfare and Sex Equality Policy Regimes. In F. Gardiner (Ed.), Sex Equality Policy in Western Europe (pp. 1–24). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Guzman, V., Seibert, U., & Staab, S. (2010). Democracy in the Country but Not in the Home? Religion, Politics and Women’s Rights in Chile. Third World Quarterly, 31(6), 971–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. Essex: Pearson.Google Scholar
  12. Harper, C., Nowacka, K., Alder, H., & Ferrant, G. (2014). Measuring Women’s Empowerment and Social Transformation in the Post-2015 Agenda. Overseas Development Institute. pp. 1–8. Retrieved from https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/8838.pdf
  13. Hernández, J., & García, R. (2008). Instrumento para Medir el Empoderamiento de la Mujer. Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, pp. 7–31. Retrieved from http://www.archivos.ujat.mx/2011/difusion/libros/10.pdf
  14. Hudson, V. M., Bowen, D. L., & Nielsen, P. L. (2011). What Is the Relationship Between Inequity in Family Law and Violence Against Women? Approaching the Issue of Legal Enclaves. Politics & Gender, 7, 453–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hudson, V. M., Ballif-Spanvill, B., Caprioli, M., & Emmett, C. F. (2012). Sex and World Peace. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hughes, M. M. (2009). Armed Conflict, International Linkages, and Women´s Parliamentary Representation in Developing Nations. Social Problems, 56(1), 174–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Muslims and the West: Testing the ‘Clash of Civilizations’ Thesis. Comparative Sociology, 1(3-4), 235–265.Google Scholar
  18. Jamal, A. A. (2010). Democratic Governance and Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): The UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Center (IDRC).Google Scholar
  19. Kenworthy, L., & Malami, M. (1999). Gender Inequality in Political Representation: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis. Social Forces, 78(1), 235–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kivoi, D. L. (2014). Factors Impeding Political Participation and Representation of Women in Kenya. Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(6), 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klasen, S. (2006). UNDP’s Gender-Related Measures: Some Conceptual Problems and Possible Solutions. Journal of Human Development, 7(2), 245–274.Google Scholar
  22. Lijphart, A. (1994). Democracies: Forms, Performance and Constitutional Engineering. European Journal of Political Research, 25(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liton, C. P., Abudulla, A. L. S., & Nahid, S. (2013). Methodological Analysis of Principal Component (PCA) Method. IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, 16(2), 32–38.Google Scholar
  24. Lopez-Claros, A., & Zahidi, S. (2005). Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap. Geneva: World Economic Forum. http://www.weforum.org/pdf/Global_Competitiveness_Reports/Reports/gender_gap.pdf.Google Scholar
  25. Lovenduski, J., Baudino, C., Guadagnini, M., Meier, P., & Sainsbury, D. (2009). Conclusions: State Feminism and Political Representation. In J. Lovenduski (Ed.), State Feminism and Political Representation (pp. 260–293). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Matland, R. E. (1998). Women’s Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 23(1), 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2001). Cultural Obstacles to Equal Representation. Journal of Democracy, 12(3), 126–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Norris, P. (1987). Politics and Sexual Equality. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  29. Novak, A., Čepar, Ž., & Trun, A. (2015). Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth. Management Journal, 10(1), 61–77.Google Scholar
  30. Nyanjom, O. (2011). Devolution in Kenyans’ New Constitution. Constitution Working Paper Series, 4, Society for International Development, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  31. O’Neil, T., Domingo, P., & Valters, C. (2014). Progress on Women’s Empowerment. From Technical Fixes to Political Action. Development Progress, 2–16. Retrieved from http://www.developmentprogress.org/sites/developmentprogress.org/files/case-study-report/progress_on_womens_empowerment_-_from_technical_fixes_to_political_action_final_-_20-11-14.pdf
  32. Oduol, J. A. (2011). Woman in Leadership and Governance. In O. Okombo et al. (Eds.), Challenging the Rulers: A Leadership Model for Good Governance. Nairobi: EAEP and Community Aid International.Google Scholar
  33. Ogato, G. S. (2013). The Quest for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Least Developed Countries: Policy and Strategy Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals in Ethiopia. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5(9), 358–378. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJSA/article-full-text-pdf/2E3139041397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. OECD. (2008). Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators: Methodology and User Guide. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  35. Oxaal, Z., & Baden, S. (1997). Gender and Empowerment: Definitions, Approaches and Implications for Policy. BRIDGE. Development—Gender. Institute of Development Studies, 1–32. Retrieved from http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/sites/bridge.ids.ac.uk/files/reports/re40c.pdf
  36. Paxton, P. (1997). Women in National Legislatures: A Cross-National Analysis. Social Science Research, 26, 442–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Paxton, P., & Kunovich, S. (2003). Women’s Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology. Social Forces, 82(1), 87–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paxton, P., & Hughes, M. M. (2007). Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective. Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  39. Permanyer, I. (2013). A Critical Assessment of the UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index. Feminist Economics, 19(2), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reynolds, A. (1999). Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling. World Politics, 51(4), 547–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rule, W. (1987). Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women’s Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies. The Western Political Quarterly, 40(3), 477–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rule, W. (1994). Women’s Underrepresentation and Electoral Systems. PS: Political Science and Politics, 27(4), 689–692.Google Scholar
  43. Schüler, D. (2006). The Uses and Misuses of the Gender Related Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Human Development, 7(2), 161–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sundström, A., Paxton, P., Wang, Y., & Lindberg, S. (2015). Women’s Political Empowerment: A New Global Index, 1900–2012. The Varieties of Democracy Institute, 19, 3–41. Retrieved from https://v-dem.net/media/filer_public/27/ef/27efa648-e81e-475a-b2df-8391dc7c840b/v-dem_working_paper_2015_19.pdf.Google Scholar
  45. Sweeney, S. E. (2006). Women’s Human Rights: A Global Comparative Analysis. Doctoral Dissertation, Graduate School of Binghamton University State University of New York.Google Scholar
  46. Tripp, A. M., & Kang, A. (2008). The Global Impact of Quotas: On the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislation. Comparative Political Studies, 41(3), 338–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. True, J., Niner, S., Parashar, S., & George, N. (2012). Women’s Political Participation in Asia and the Pacific. Conflict Prevention and Peace Forum, 1–62. Retrieved from http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/thebordercrossingobservatory/files/2013/02/UNDPA-Women%E2%80%99s-Political-Participation-in-Asia-and-the-Pacific.pdf
  48. UNDP. (2015). Gender Equality in Human Development—Measurement Revisited. Human Development Report Office. Issue Paper. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdro_issue_paper_on_gender_indices_with_cover.pdf
  49. Viterna, J., Fallon, K. M., & Beckfield, J. (2008). How Development Matters: A Research Note on the Relationship between Development, Democracy and Women’s Political Representation. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 49, 455–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Waylen, G. (2008). Enhancing the Substantive Representation of Women: Lessons from Transitions to Democracy. Parliamentary Affairs, 61(3), 518–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. World Bank. (2016). World Development Indicators. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/
  52. Weldon, S. L. (2002). Protest Policy and the Problem of Violence Against Women. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. WEF. (2014). World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report 2014. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR14/GGGR_CompleteReport_2014.pdf
  54. WomanStats. (2015). The WomanStats Database. Retrieved from http://www.womanstats.org/new/codebook/
  55. Zupi, M. (2015). Measuring Rural Women’s Empowerment: Issues & Challenges. Issues Paper for the 2015 UNWOMEN – CeSPI – DGCS/MAECI Seminar, pp. 2–16. Retrieved from http://www.cespi.it/PDF/Zupi-UNWOMEN-CeSPI%20&%20MAECI%20-%202015.pdf

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Senem Ertan
    • 1
  • Catalina Monroy
    • 2
  • Juan Pablo Vallejo
    • 3
  • Germán Romero
    • 4
  • Ana Catalina Erazo
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Political SciencesSocial Sciences University of AnkaraAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Universidad del RosarioBogotáColombia
  3. 3.Universidad Sergio ArboledaBogotáColombia
  4. 4.Sergio Arboleda UniversityBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations