Has China risen? And if so, has the West created a Frankenstein? Why has the widely perceived economic success of China been followed not by a democratic transition but by a totalitarian turn? The author challenges the conventional wisdom that takes the “rise of China” as a given. Refuting both market liberals and market skeptics, the author argues that China’s deep integration into the global economy has led to dependent development. Such an end result was not preordained. The alternative pathway of autonomous development not only exists but also is available for China, even in the age of liberal globalization. This book sheds intense critical light on China’s “reform and opening” process from a multidisciplinary perspective.