Early Management of Biliary Pancreatitis

  • Alistair B. J. Escott
  • John A. WindsorEmail author


Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the commonest gastrointestinal disease requiring hospitalisation, is frequently precipitated by biliary disease and has a range of complications. The early management of AP requires confirmation of the diagnosis, prediction of severity and determination of aetiology. Intravenous fluid therapy and enteral nutrition are important cornerstones of the early management. Optimal analgesia, avoidance of prophylactic antibiotics, the management of concomitant cholangitis and timing of cholecystectomy are other important considerations in the early management. The accurate prediction of patients at risk from severe and critical disease should trigger referrals to both a tertiary centre and/or intensive care for best outcomes.

The scope of this chapter is the early management of biliary pancreatitis. The management of various complications of severe pancreatitis such as infected necrosis, psuedocyst and pancreatic ascities are beyond the purpose of this book.


  1. 1.
    Yadav D, Lowenfels AB. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2013;144(6):1252–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petrov MS, Shanbhag S, Chakraborty M, Phillips ARJ, Windsor JA. Organ failure and infection of pancreatic necrosis as determinants of mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(3):813–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khokhar AS, Seidner DL. The pathophysiology of pancreatitis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2004;19(1):5–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yadav D, Lowenfels AB. Trends in the epidemiology of the first attack of acute pancreatitis: a systematic review. Pancreas. 2006;33(4):323–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schepers NJ, Besselink MGH, van Santvoort HC, Bakker OJ, Bruno MJ, Dutch Pancreatitis Study G. Early management of acute pancreatitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;27(5):727–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Opie EL. The relation of cholelithiasis to diesase of the pancreas and to fat necrosis. Am J Med Sci. 1901;121(1):27–42.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banks PA, Bollen TL, Dervenis C, Gooszen HG, Johnson CD, Sarr MG, et al. Classification of acute pancreatitis-2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus. Gut. 2013;62(1):102–11.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dellinger EP, Forsmark CE, Layer P, Levy P, Maravi-Poma E, Petrov MS, et al. Determinant-based classification of acute pancreatitis severity: an international multidisciplinary consultation. Ann Surg. 2012;256(6):875–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Working Party of the British Society of G, Association of Surgeons of Great B, Ireland, Pancreatic Society of Great B, Ireland, Association of Upper GISoGB, et al. UK guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis. Gut. 2005;54(Suppl 3):iii1–9.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Working Group IAP/APA Acute Pancreatitis Guidelines. IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2013;13(4 Suppl 2):e1–15.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Windsor JA, Johnson CD, Petrov MS, Layer P, Garg PK, Papachristou GI. Classifying the severity of acute pancreatitis: towards a way forward. Pancreatology. 2015;15(2):101–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thandassery RB, Yadav TD, Dutta U, Appasani S, Singh K, Kochhar R. Prospective validation of 4-category classification of acute pancreatitis severity. Pancreas. 2013;42(3):392–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petrov MS, Windsor JA, Levy P, Pancreatitis Across Nations Clinical Research and Education Alliance. New international classification of acute pancreatitis: more than just 4 categories of severity. Pancreas. 2013;42(3):389–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jin T, Huang W, Yang XN, Xue P, Javed MA, Altaf K, et al. Validation of the moderate severity category of acute pancreatitis defined by determinant-based classification. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2014;13(3):323–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Acevedo-Piedra NG, Moya-Hoyo N, Rey-Riveiro M, Gil S, Sempere L, Martinez J, et al. Validation of the determinant-based classification and revision of the Atlanta classification systems for acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(2):311–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit Care Med. 1985;13(10):818–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Papachristou GI, Muddana V, Yadav D, O'Connell M, Sanders MK, Slivka A, et al. Comparison of BISAP, Ranson’s, APACHE-II, and CTSI scores in predicting organ failure, complications, and mortality in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(2):435–41. quiz 42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petrov MS, Windsor JA. Conceptual framework for classifying the severity of acute pancreatitis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2012;36(4):341–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gomatos IP, Xiaodong X, Ghaneh P, Halloran C, Raraty M, Lane B, et al. Prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2014;14(3):333–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rangel-Frausto MS, Pittet D, Costigan M, Hwang T, Davis CS, Wenzel RP. The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A prospective study. JAMA. 1995;273(2):117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mofidi R, Duff MD, Wigmore SJ, Madhavan KK, Garden OJ, Parks RW. Association between early systemic inflammatory response, severity of multiorgan dysfunction and death in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2006;93(6):738–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buter A, Imrie CW, Carter CR, Evans S, McKay CJ. Dynamic nature of early organ dysfunction determines outcome in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2002;89(3):298–302.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson CD, Abu-Hilal M. Persistent organ failure during the first week as a marker of fatal outcome in acute pancreatitis. Gut. 2004;53(9):1340–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Das SLM, Papachristou GI, De Campos T, Panek J, Poves Prim I, Serrablo A, et al. Individual patient data meta-analysis of organ failure in acute pancreatitis: protocol of the PANCREA II study. JOP. 2013;14(5):475–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mounzer R, Langmead CJ, Wu BU, Evans AC, Bishehsari F, Muddana V, et al. Comparison of existing clinical scoring systems to predict persistent organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(7):1476–82. quiz e15–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jones AE, Trzeciak S, Kline JA. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score for predicting outcome in patients with severe sepsis and evidence of hypoperfusion at the time of emergency department presentation. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(5):1649–54.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marshall JC, Cook DJ, Christou NV, Bernard GR, Sprung CL, Sibbald WJ. Multiple organ dysfunction score: a reliable descriptor of a complex clinical outcome. Crit Care Med. 1995;23(10):1638–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khwannimit B. A comparison of three organ dysfunction scores: MODS, SOFA and LOD for predicting ICU mortality in critically ill patients. J Med Assoc Thail. 2007;90(6):1074–81.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tse F, Yuan Y. Early routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography strategy versus early conservative management strategy in acute gallstone pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD009779.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Venneman NG, Buskens E, Besselink MG, Stads S, Go PM, Bosscha K, et al. Small gallstones are associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis: potential benefits of prophylactic cholecystectomy? Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(11):2540–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tenner S, Dubner H, Steinberg W. Predicting gallstone pancreatitis with laboratory parameters: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994;89(10):1863–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    van Santvoort HC, Bakker OJ, Besselink MG, Bollen TL, Fischer K, Nieuwenhuijs VB, et al. Prediction of common bile duct stones in the earliest stages of acute biliary pancreatitis. Endoscopy. 2011;43(1):8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krejci V, Hiltebrand L, Banic A, Erni D, Wheatley AM, Sigurdsson GH. Continuous measurements of microcirculatory blood flow in gastrointestinal organs during acute haemorrhage. Br J Anaesth. 2000;84(4):468–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hiltebrand LB, Krejci V, Banic A, Erni D, Wheatley AM, Sigurdsson GH. Dynamic study of the distribution of microcirculatory blood flow in multiple splanchnic organs in septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(9):3233–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bassi D, Kollias N, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Foitzik T, Warshaw AL, Rattner DW. Impairment of pancreatic microcirculation correlates with the severity of acute experimental pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 1994;179(3):257–63.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Spanier BWM, Nio Y, van der Hulst RWM, Tuynman HARE, Dijkgraaf MGW, Bruno MJ. Practice and yield of early CT scan in acute pancreatitis: a Dutch Observational Multicenter Study. Pancreatology. 2010;10(2–3):222–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Balthazar EJ, Freeny PC, van Sonnenberg E. Imaging and intervention in acute pancreatitis. Radiology. 1994;193(2):297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bollen TL, Singh VK, Maurer R, Repas K, van Es HW, Banks PA, et al. A comparative evaluation of radiologic and clinical scoring systems in the early prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(4):612–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Windsor JA, Petrov MS. Acute pancreatitis reclassified. Gut. 2013;62(1):4–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Basurto Ona X, Rigau Comas D, Urrutia G. Opioids for acute pancreatitis pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD009179.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meng W, Yuan J, Zhang C, Bai Z, Zhou W, Yan J, et al. Parenteral analgesics for pain relief in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review. Pancreatology. 2013;13(3):201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rawlinson A, Kitchingham N, Hart C, McMahon G, Ong SL, Khanna A. Mechanisms of reducing postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of current techniques. Evid Based Med. 2012;17(3):75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lancaster EM, Hiatt JR, Zarrinpar A. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: an updated review. Arch Toxicol. 2015;89(2):193–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ebbehoj N, Friis J, Svendsen LB, Bulow S, Madsen P. Indomethacin treatment of acute pancreatitis. A controlled double-blind trial. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1985;20(7):798–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peiro AM, Martinez J, Martinez E, de Madaria E, Llorens P, Horga JF, et al. Efficacy and tolerance of metamizole versus morphine for acute pancreatitis pain. Pancreatology. 2008;8(1):25–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Malfertheiner P, Chan FK, McColl KE. Peptic ulcer disease. Lancet. 2009;374(9699):1449–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sorensen HT, Jacobsen J, Norgaard M, Pedersen L, Johnsen SP, Baron JA. Newer cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of acute pancreatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(1):111–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thompson DR. Narcotic analgesic effects on the sphincter of Oddi: a review of the data and therapeutic implications in treating pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(4):1266–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bachmann KA, Trepte CJ, Tomkotter L, Hinsch A, Stork J, Bergmann W, et al. Effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on survival and microcirculation in severe acute pancreatitis: a randomized experimental trial. Crit Care. 2013;17(6):R281.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harper D, McNaught CE. The role of thoracic epidural anesthesia in severe acute pancreatitis. Crit Care. 2014;18(1):106.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bernhardt A, Kortgen A, Niesel H, Goertz A. Using epidural anesthesia in patients with acute pancreatitis-prospective study of 121 patients. Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2002;27(1):16–22.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bortolotti P, Saulnier F, Colling D, Redheuil A, Preau S. New tools for optimizing fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(43):16113–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gardner TB, Vege SS, Pearson RK, Chari ST. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6(10):1070–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Solanki NS, Barreto SG. Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis. A systematic review of literature. JOP. 2011;12(2):205–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lameire N, Van Biesen W, Vanholder R. Acute renal failure. Lancet. 2005;365(9457):417–30.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cuthbertson CM, Christophi C. Disturbances of the microcirculation in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2006;93(5):518–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Haydock MD, Mittal A, Wilms HR, Phillips A, Petrov MS, Windsor JA. Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis: anybody’s guess. Ann Surg. 2013;257(2):182–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Flint RS, Windsor JA. The role of the intestine in the pathophysiology and management of severe acute pancreatitis. HPB. 2003;5(2):69–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reddy N, Wilcox CM, Tamhane A, Eloubeidi MA, Varadarajulu S. Protocol-based medical management of post-ERCP pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(3):385–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wu BU, Hwang JQ, Gardner TH, Repas K, Delee R, Yu S, et al. Lactated Ringer’s solution reduces systemic inflammation compared with saline in patients with acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(8):710–7.e1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mole DJ, Hall A, McKeown D, Garden OJ, Parks RW. Detailed fluid resuscitation profiles in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. HPB. 2011;13(1):51–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Marik PE, Baram M, Vahid B. Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systematic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares. Chest. 2008;134(1):172–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brown A, Baillargeon JD, Hughes MD, Banks PA. Can fluid resuscitation prevent pancreatic necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis? Pancreatology. 2002;2(2):104–7.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mao EQ, Fei J, Peng YB, Huang J, Tang YQ, Zhang SD. Rapid hemodilution is associated with increased sepsis and mortality among patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Chin Med J. 2010;123(13):1639–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Aneman A, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s acetate in severe sepsis.[Erratum appears in N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 2;367(5):481]. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(2):124–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Du XJ, Hu WM, Xia Q, Huang ZW, Chen GY, Jin XD, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch resuscitation reduces the risk of intra-abdominal hypertension in severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2011;40(8):1220–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gardner TB, Vege SS, Chari ST, Petersen BT, Topazian MD, Clain JE, et al. Faster rate of initial fluid resuscitation in severe acute pancreatitis diminishes in-hospital mortality. Pancreatology. 2009;9(6):770–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wall I, Badalov N, Baradarian R, Iswara K, Li JJ, Tenner S. Decreased mortality in acute pancreatitis related to early aggressive hydration. Pancreas. 2011;40(4):547–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Warndorf MG, Kurtzman JT, Bartel MJ, Cox M, Mackenzie T, Robinson S, et al. Early fluid resuscitation reduces morbidity among patients with acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(8):705–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    De-Madaria E, Soler-Sala G, Sanchez-Paya J, Lopez-Font I, Martinez J, Gomez-Escolar L, et al. Influence of fluid therapy on the prognosis of acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(10):1843–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Eckerwall G, Olin H, Andersson B, Andersson R. Fluid resuscitation and nutritional support during severe acute pancreatitis in the past: what have we learned and how can we do better? Clin Nutr. 2006;25(3):497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mao EQ, Tang YQ, Fei J, Qin S, Wu J, Li L, et al. Fluid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis in acute response stage. Chin Med J. 2009;122(2):169–73.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mao EQ, Tang YQ, Li L, Qin S, Wu J, Liu W, et al. Strategy of controlling fluid resuscitation for severe acute pancreatitis in acute phase. Chinese J Surg. 2007;45(19):1331–4.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Havala T, Shronts E, Cerra F. Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 1989;18(3):525–42.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Steinberg W, Tenner S. Acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(17):1198–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Petrov M. Nutrition, inflammation, and acute pancreatitis. ISRN Inflamm. 2013;2013:341410.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Petrov MS, Pylypchuk RD, Emelyanov NV. Systematic review: nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;28(6):704–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    O'Keefe SJ, Lee RB, Li J, Stevens S, Abou-Assi S, Zhou W. Trypsin secretion and turnover in patients with acute pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289(2):G181–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Boreham B, Ammori BJ. A prospective evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function in patients with acute pancreatitis: correlation with extent of necrosis and pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatology. 2003;3(4):303–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Petrov MS, Windsor JA. Nutritional management of acute pancreatitis: the concept of ‘gut rousing’. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013;16(5):557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Al-Omran M, Albalawi ZH, Tashkandi MF, Al-Ansary LA. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition for acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;1:CD002837.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tiengou L-E, Gloro R, Pouzoulet J, Bouhier K, Read M-H, Arnaud-Battandier F, et al. Semi-elemental formula or polymeric formula: is there a better choice for enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis? Randomized comparative study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006;30(1):1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Petrov MS, Loveday BPT, Pylypchuk RD, McIlroy K, Phillips ARJ, Windsor JA. Systematic review and meta-analysis of enteral nutrition formulations in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2009;96(11):1243–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Eckerwall GE, Tingstedt BB, Bergenzaun PE, Andersson RG. Immediate oral feeding in patients with mild acute pancreatitis is safe and may accelerate recovery—a randomized clinical study. Clin Nutr. 2007;26(6):758–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moraes JM, Felga GE, Chebli LA, Franco MB, Gomes CA, Gaburri PD, et al. A full solid diet as the initial meal in mild acute pancreatitis is safe and result in a shorter length of hospitalization: results from a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44(7):517–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Teich N, Aghdassi A, Fischer J, Walz B, Caca K, Wallochny T, et al. Optimal timing of oral refeeding in mild acute pancreatitis: results of an open randomized multicenter trial. Pancreas. 2010;39(7):1088–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Petrov MS, McIlroy K, Grayson L, Phillips AR, Windsor JA. Early nasogastric tube feeding versus nil per os in mild to moderate acute pancreatitis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(5):697–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Petrov MS, van Santvoort HC, Besselink MGH, van der Heijden GJMG, Windsor JA, Gooszen HG. Enteral nutrition and the risk of mortality and infectious complications in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Arch Surg. 2008;143(11):1111–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wu LM, Sankaran SJ, Plank LD, Windsor JA, Petrov MS. Meta-analysis of gut barrier dysfunction in patients with acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2014;101(13):1644–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Petrov MS, Correia MITD, Windsor JA. Nasogastric tube feeding in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. A systematic review of the literature to determine safety and tolerance. JOP. 2008;9(4):440–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nally DM, Kelly EG, Clarke M, Ridgway P. Nasogastric nutrition is efficacious in severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2014;112(11):1769–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chang YS, Fu HQ, Xiao YM, Liu JC. Nasogastric or nasojejunal feeding in predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2013;17(3):R118.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bakker OJ, van Brunschot S, van Santvoort HC, Besselink MG, Bollen TL, Boermeester MA, et al. Early versus on-demand nasoenteric tube feeding in acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(21):1983–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wang K, McIlroy K, Plank LD, Petrov MS, Windsor JA. Prevalence, management and outcomes of enteral tube feeding tolerance: a retrospective cohort study in a tertiary centre. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2017;41(6):959–67Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mahanna E, Crimi E, White P, Mann DS, Fahy BG. Nutrition and metabolic support for critically ill patients. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2015;28(2):131–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Reignier J, Mercier E, Le Gouge A, Boulain T, Desachy A, Bellec F, et al. Effect of not monitoring residual gastric volume on risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults receiving mechanical ventilation and early enteral feeding: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013;309(3):249–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sautner T, Wessely C, Riegler M, Sedivy R, Gotzinger P, Losert U, et al. Early effects of catecholamine therapy on mucosal integrity, intestinal blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in porcine endotoxin shock. Ann Surg. 1998;228(2):239–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hirota M, Inoue K, Kimura Y, Mizumoto T, Kuwata K, Ohmuraya M, et al. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia and its associated intestinal gangrene in acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2003;3(4):316–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Revelly JP, Tappy L, Berger MM, Gersbach P, Cayeux C, Chiolero R. Early metabolic and splanchnic responses to enteral nutrition in postoperative cardiac surgery patients with circulatory compromise. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27(3):540–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Evennett NJ, Petrov MS, Mittal A, Windsor JA. Systematic review and pooled estimates for the diagnostic accuracy of serological markers for intestinal ischemia. World J Surg. 2009;33(7):1374–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Petrov MS, Chong V, Windsor JA. Infected pancreatic necrosis: not necessarily a late event in acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(27):3173–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Villatoro E, Mulla M, Larvin M. Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;5:CD002941.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wittau M, Mayer B, Scheele J, Henne-Bruns D, Dellinger EP, Isenmann R. Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in severe acute pancreatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011;46(3):261–70.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Buchler MW, Gloor B, Muller CA, Friess H, Seiler CA, Uhl W. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: treatment strategy according to the status of infection. Ann Surg. 2000;232(5):619–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Howard TJ, Temple MB. Prophylactic antibiotics alter the bacteriology of infected necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2002;195(6):759–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Howard TJ. The role of antimicrobial therapy in severe acute pancreatitis. Surg Clin North Am. 2013;93(3):585–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Barlow AD, Haqq J, McCormack D, Metcalfe MS, Dennison AR, Garcea G. The role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the management of acute gallstone pancreatitis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2013;95(7):503–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kondo S, Isayama H, Akahane M, Toda N, Sasahira N, Nakai Y, et al. Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography. Eur J Radiol. 2005;54(2):271–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Neoptolemos JP, Carr-Locke DL, London NJ, Bailey IA, James D, Fossard DP. Controlled trial of urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment for acute pancreatitis due to gallstones. Lancet. 1988;2(8618):979–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Fan ST, Lai EC, Mok FP, Lo CM, Zheng SS, Wong J. Early treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis by endoscopic papillotomy. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(4):228–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    van Baal MC, Besselink MG, Bakker OJ, van Santvoort HC, Schaapherder AF, Nieuwenhuijs VB, et al. Timing of cholecystectomy after mild biliary pancreatitis: a systematic review. Ann Surg. 2012;255(5):860–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    McAlister VC, Davenport E, Renouf E. Cholecystectomy deferral in patients with endoscopic sphincterotomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD006233.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bakker OJ, van Santvoort HC, Hagenaars JC, Besselink MG, Bollen TL, Gooszen HG, et al. Timing of cholecystectomy after mild biliary pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2011;98(10):1446–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tabone LE, Sarker S, Fisichella PM, Conlon M, Fernando E, Yi S, et al. To ‘gram or not’? Indications for intraoperative cholangiogram. Surgery. 2011;150(4):810–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dasari BV, Tan CJ, Gurusamy KS, Martin DJ, Kirk G, McKie L, et al. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD003327.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Nealon WH, Bawduniak J, Walser EM. Appropriate timing of cholecystectomy in patients who present with moderate to severe gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis with peripancreatic fluid collections. Ann Surg. 2004;239(6):741–9. discussion 9-51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sharma M, Banerjee D, Garg PK. Characterization of newer subgroups of fulminant and subfulminant pancreatitis associated with a high early mortality. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(12):2688–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Task Force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine SoCCM. Guidelines for intensive care unit admission, discharge, and triage. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(3):633–8.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Singla A, Simons J, Li Y, Csikesz NG, Ng SC, Tseng JF, et al. Admission volume determines outcome for patients with acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(6):1995–2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gunther A, Walmrath D, Grimminger F, Seeger W. Pathophysiology of acute lung injury. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;22(3):247–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Berry AR, Taylor TV, Davies GC. Pulmonary function and fibrinogen metabolism in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 1981;68(12):870–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, Opal SM, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39(2):165–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mayer AD, McMahon MJ, Corfield AP, Cooper MJ, Williamson RC, Dickson AP, et al. Controlled clinical trial of peritoneal lavage for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(7):399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Maravi Poma E, Zubia Olascoaga F, Petrov MS, Navarro Soto S, Laplaza Santos C, Morales Alava F, et al. SEMICYUC 2012. Recommendations for intensive care management of acute pancreatitis.[Erratum appears in Med Intensiva. 2014 Mar;38(2):131]. Med Intensiva. 2013;37(3):163–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ronco C, Ricci Z, De Backer D, Kellum JA, Taccone FS, Joannidis M, et al. Renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury: controversy and consensus. Crit Care. 2015;19:146.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tao HQ, Zhang JX, Zou SC. Clinical characteristics and management of patients with early acute severe pancreatitis: experience from a medical center in China. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10(6):919–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Malbrain ML, Cheatham ML, Kirkpatrick A, Sugrue M, Parr M, De Waele J, et al. Results from the International conference of experts on intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome I definitions. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(11):1722–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cheatham ML, Malbrain ML, Kirkpatrick A, Sugrue M, Parr M, De Waele J, et al. Results from the international conference of experts on intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. II recommendations. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(6):951–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cheatham ML, White MW, Sagraves SG, Johnson JL, Block EF. Abdominal perfusion pressure: a superior parameter in the assessment of intra-abdominal hypertension. J Trauma. 2000;49(4):621–6. discussion 6-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wiener RS, Wiener DC, Larson RJ. Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: a meta-analysis.[Erratum appears in JAMA. 2009 Mar 4;301(9):936]. JAMA. 2008;300(8):933–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical and Health SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations