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The Local and Systemic Effects of Cobalt-Chromium Nanoparticles on the Human Body: The Implications for Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty

  • James DrummondEmail author
  • Phong Tran
  • Camdon Fary
Chapter

Abstract

Prostheses made from metal alloys have been successfully utilised within medicine for hundreds of years. Among these, cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have seen extensive use in orthopaedic applications, including hip and knee joint replacements. Despite all the research and development that has gone into optimising these implants, however, a small proportion of them ultimately fail and require revision after a number of years. While the reasons for this are diverse, the reaction of metal nanoparticles to human tissues is a recognised complication of implanting these alloys within the body. This chapter explores the orthopaedic use of metal alloys within the human body as well as the local and systemic effects of these metal nanoparticles, with emphasis on large-diameter metal-on-metal hip replacements.

Keywords

Metal-on-metal Hip arthroplasty Hip replacement Metallosis Pseudotumour Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) 

Abbreviations

ALVAL

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion

ARMD

Adverse reaction(s) to metal debris

Co-Cr

Cobalt-chromium

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetate

MARS

Metal artefact reduction sequence

MoM

Metal-on-metal

MoP

Metal-on-polyethylene

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

SCENIHR

Scientific committee on emerging and newly identified health risks

THA

Total hip arthroplasty

THR

Total hip replacement(s)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsWestern HealthMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal ScienceMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Epworth Musculoskeletal InstituteMelbourneAustralia

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