Advertisement

‘An Exceptional Sentence’: Exploring the Implementation of the Order for Lifelong Restriction

  • Yvonne Gailey
  • Lesley Martin
  • Rachel Webb
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Risk, Crime and Society book series (PSRCS)

Abstract

In Scotland in 2000, an expert committee made recommendations for the introduction of a new sentence—the Order for Lifelong Restriction (OLR)—intended to provide exceptional measures to manage the risk posed by those who present an enduring, life-endangering risk to others. Around that time, many other jurisdictions were similarly focused; however, the policy and sentence that emerged in Scotland have particular features that make the Scottish approach distinctive. Despite this, little has been written about the OLR. This chapter will draw on a range of data collected by the Risk Management Authority (RMA) to examine the application and implementation of the OLR since 2006.

Keywords

Order for Lifelong Restriction Preventive sentencing Human rights 

References

  1. Ahmet, A. (2016). The Order for Lifelong Restriction (OLR): Are Those Subject to the Sentence a Unique Set of Offenders? Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Glasgow Caledonian University.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, S. (2004). The Level of Service Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, D. A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R. C., Rettinger, L. J., Brews, A., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). Are the Major Risk/Need Factors Predictive of Both Female and Male Reoffending? A Test with the Eight Domains of the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56(1), 113–133.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X10395716. Epub 2011 Feb 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashworth, A., & Zedner, L. (2014). Preventive Justice (Oxford Monographs on Criminal Law and Justice). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Darjee, R., & Crichton, J. (2002). The MacLean Committee: Scotland’s Answer to the ‘Dangerous People with Severe Personality Disorder’ Proposals? Psychiatric Bulletin, 26(1), 6–8.  https://doi.org/10.1192/pb.26.1.6. Available at: http://pb.rcpsych.org/content/26/1/6. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Darjee, R., & Russell, K. (2011). The Assessment and Sentencing of High-risk Offenders in Scotland. In B. McSherry & P. Keyzer (Eds.), Dangerous People: Policy, Prediction, and Practice (pp. 217–232). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Dunkel, F. (2009). Young People’s Rights: The Role of the Council of Europe in Reforming Juvenile Justice. In J. Junger Tas & F. Dunkel (Eds.), Reforming Juvenile Justice (pp. 33–44). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freiberg, A. (2000). Guerrillas in Our Midst? Judicial Responses to Governing the Dangerous. In M. Brown & J. Pratt (Eds.), Dangerous Offenders: Punishment and Social Order (pp. 51–70). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Fyfe, I., & Gailey, Y. (2011). The Scottish Approach to High Risk Offenders: Early Answers and Further Questions. In B. McSherry & P. Keyzer (Eds.), Dangerous People: Policy, Prediction, and Practice (pp. 201–216). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Hammarberg, T. (2008). A Juvenile Justice Approach Built on Human Rights Principles. Youth Justice, 8(3), 193–196.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1473225408096459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hare, R. D. (1991). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  13. Hebenton, B., & Seddon, T. (2009). From Dangerousness to Precaution: Managing Sexual and Violent Offenders in an Insecure and Uncertain Age. British Journal of Criminology, 49, 343–362.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azn085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hemphill, J. F. (2003). Interpreting the Magnitudes of Correlation Coefficients. American Psychologist, 58(1), 78–80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12674822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnstone, L. (2011). Assessing and Managing Violent Youth: Implications for Sentencing. In B. McSherry & P. Keyzer (Eds.), Dangerous People: Policy, Prediction, and Practice (pp. 122–146). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Keyzer, P., & McSherry, R. (2015). The Preventive Detention of Sex Offenders: Law and Practice. University of New South Wales Law Journal, 38(2.) Available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/UNSWLawJl/2015/28.html. Accessed 12 Jan 2017.
  17. McNeill, F., & Whyte, B. (2007). Reducing Re-offending: Community Justice and Social Work in Scotland. Cullompton: Willan Press.Google Scholar
  18. McSherry, B. (2014). Managing Fear: The Law and Ethics of Preventive Detention and Risk Assessment. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. McSherry, B., & Keyzer, P. (2010). Sex Offenders and Preventative Detention: Politics, Policy and Practice. Annandale: Federation Press.Google Scholar
  20. Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood Predictors Differentiate Life-course Persistent and Adolescence-limited Antisocial Pathways among Males and Females. Developmental Psychopathology, 13(2), 355–375. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11393651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Padfield, N. (2010). The Sentencing, Management and Treatment of ‘Dangerous’ Offenders. European Committee on Crime Problems (PC-CP [2010] 10 rev 5). Available at: http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/cdpc/PC-GR-DD/PC-CP(2010)
  22. Risk Management Authority. (2011). A Framework for Risk Assessment, Management and Evaluation (FRAME). Paisley: RMA. Available at: http://www.rmascotland.gov.uk/files/5713/0943/0052/FRAME_Policy_Paper_-_July_2011.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 5 2017.Google Scholar
  23. Risk Management Authority. (2013a). Standards and Guidelines for Risk Assessment. Paisley: RMA. Available at: http://www.rmascotland.gov.uk/standardsandguidelines/. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.Google Scholar
  24. Risk Management Authority. (2013b). Standards and Guidelines for Risk Management. Paisley: RMA. Available at: http://www.rmascotland.gov.uk/standardsandguidelines/. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.Google Scholar
  25. Risk Management Authority. (2016). unpublished data.Google Scholar
  26. Scottish Executive. (2000). Report of the Committee on Serious Violent and Sexual Offenders. Chairman: Lord MacLean. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at: http://content.iriss.org.uk/throughcare/files/pdf/longterm/lt4_risk2.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.
  27. Scottish Executive. (2001). Criminal Justice: Serious Violent and Sexual Offenders (White Paper). Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.Google Scholar

Legislation

  1. Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995Google Scholar
  2. Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003Google Scholar

International Instruments

  1. European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental FreedomsGoogle Scholar
  2. Recommendation CM/Rec (2014) 3 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States Concerning Dangerous Offenders (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 February 2014)Google Scholar
  3. Recommendation Rec (2000) 22 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Improving the Implementation of European Rules on Community Sanctions and MeasuresGoogle Scholar
  4. Recommendation CM/Rec (2008) 11 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the European Rules for Juvenile Offenders Subject to Sanctions or MeasuresGoogle Scholar
  5. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1991)Google Scholar
  6. United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules)Google Scholar

Cases

  1. (1) Morris Petch & (2) Robert Foye v. Her Majesty’s Advocate [2010] HCJAC 2Google Scholar
  2. (1) James Ferguson; (2) Stuart Cameron; (3) Bruce James Balfour & (4) Thomas Nolan v. Her Majesty’s Advocate [2014] HCJAC 19Google Scholar
  3. (1) Andrew Kinloch & (2) James Quinn v. Her Majesty’s Advocate [2015] HCJAC 102Google Scholar
  4. Sean Barry Moynihan v. Her Majesty’s Advocate [2016] HCJAC 85Google Scholar
  5. Myles Gibson Simpson v. Her Majesty’s Advocate [2015] HCJAC 20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Gailey
    • 1
  • Lesley Martin
    • 1
  • Rachel Webb
    • 1
  1. 1.Risk Management AuthorityPaisleyUK

Personalised recommendations