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Function and Dysfunction of Adipose Tissue

  • Paulo MatafomeEmail author
  • Raquel Seiça
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Neurobiology book series (NEUROBIOL, volume 19)

Abstract

Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which is responsible for postprandial uptake of glucose and fatty acids, consequently producing a broad range of adipokines controlling several physiological functions like appetite, insulin sensitivity and secretion, immunity, coagulation, and vascular tone, among others. Many aspects of adipose tissue pathophysiology in metabolic diseases have been described in the last years. Recent data suggest two main factors for adipose tissue dysfunction: accumulation of nonesterified fatty acids and their secondary products and hypoxia. Both of these factors are thought to be on the basis of low-grade inflammatory activation, further increasing metabolic dysregulation in adipose tissue. In turn, inflammation is involved in the inhibition of substrate uptake, alteration of the secretory profile, stimulation of angiogenesis, and recruitment of further inflammatory cells, which creates an inflammatory feedback in the tissue and is responsible for long-term establishment of insulin resistance.

Keywords

Nutrient storage Adipokines Lipid intermediates Hypoxia Inflammation Angiogenesis 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Physiology, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences—IBILI, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Complementary SciencesCoimbra Health School (ESTeSC), Instituto Politécnico de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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